Auf dieser Seite finden Sie Studien, die die gesundheitsschädigende Wirkung von Plastik sowie die Auswirkungen von Plastik auf die Umwelt untersuchen. Zu jeder Studie finden Sie einen Link, der Sie zur Original-Studie führt.
In this study, a variety of different aspects associated with plastic pollution in coastal and marine regions are highlighted. In addition to fatal ecological consequences, socio-economic impacts of pollution are also identified. mehr
The widespread presence of plastic particles in our oceans has profound effects on the health of their inhabitants. Seabirds in particular feel the physiological effects of plastic pollution. mehr
This study examines the fatal consequences of marine pollution on sea turtles and makes the case that humans must change their behavior to avoid making the situation worse. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle... mehr
Research on microplastic particles in the oceans has increased significantly in recent years. This study comprehensively analyzes more than 100 publications on the effects of microparticles on the marine ecosystem. mehr
Recently, research examining the occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment has substantially increased. Field and laboratory work regularly provide new evidence on the fate of microplastic debris. This debris has been observed within every marine habitat. In this study, at least 101 peer-reviewed papers investigating microplastic pollution were critically analysed (Supplementary material). Microplastics are commonly studied in relation to:
All of the marine organism groups are at an eminent risk of interacting with microplastics according to the available literature. Dozens of works on other relevant issues (i.e., polymer decay at sea, new sampling and laboratory methods, emerging sources, externalities) were also analysed and discussed. This paper provides the first in-depth exploration of the effects of microplastics on the marine environment and biota. The number of scientific publications will increase in response to present and projected plastic uses and discard patterns. Therefore, new themes and important approaches for future work are proposed.
This study investigates whether plastic substances found in maternal blood have negative effects on the health of the fetus or the infant. mehr
Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were
Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17–22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002–2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day.
Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.
In this study, the absorption capacities of different microplastic particles were investigated. This is important because chemicals can attach to the particles and thus be bundled through the seas. mehr
The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the ocean is an emerging world-wide concern. Due to high sorption capacity of plastics for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), sorption may play an important role in the transport processes of HOCs. However, sorption capacity of various plastic materials is rarely documented except in the case of those used for environmental sampling purposes.
In this study, we measured partition coefficients between MPs and seawater (KMPsw) for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and 2 chlorinated benzenes (CBs). Three surrogate polymers – polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene – were used as model plastic debris because they are the major components of microplastic debris found. Due to the limited solubility of HOCs in seawater and their long equilibration time, a third-phase partitioning method was used for the determination of KMPsw. First, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and seawater (KPDMSsw) were measured. For the determination of KMPsw, the distribution of HOCs between PDMS or plastics and solvent mixture (methanol:water = 8:2 (v/v)) was determined after apparent equilibrium up to 12 weeks.
Plastic debris was prepared in a laboratory by physical crushing; the median longest dimension was 320–440 μm. Partition coefficients between polyethylene and seawater obtained using the third-phase equilibrium method agreed well with experimental partition coefficients between low-density polyethylene and water in the literature. The values of KMPsw were generally in the order of polystyrene, polyethylene, and polypropylene for most of the chemicals tested. The ranges of log KMPsw were 2.04–7.87, 2.18–7.00, and 2.63–7.52 for polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene, respectively. The partition coefficients of plastic debris can be as high as other frequently used partition coefficients, such as 1-octanol–water partition coefficients (Kow) and log KMPsw showed good linear correlations with log Kow. High sorption capacity of microplastics implies the importance of MP-associated transport of HOCs in the marine environment.
The fear of exposure to certain substances such as organophosphates, pesticides or bisphenol A is getting bigger. In this study, urine was tested for these substances by three different groups of pregnant women. mehr
Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 microg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States.
The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 microg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 microg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrifos-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates).
This study provides evidence that zooplankton is also affected by micro-plastic. mehr
Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study.
A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m−3) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm3 m−3), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries.
Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).
This article deals with the question of whether there is a connection between the prenatal burden of phthalates and the health of the newborn. mehr
Phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants for the fetus in pregnant rodents, and the ability of phthalates to penetrate the placenta have been reported. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between maternal urine excretion, the exposure of fetus to phthalates in amniotic fluid, and the health of newborns. Amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women were collected to measure five phthalate monoesters using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and the newborns’ birth weight, gestational age, and anogenital distance (AGD) were collected.
The median levels of three phthalate monoesters in urine and amniotic fluid were 78.4 and 85.2 ng/mL monobutyl phthalate (MBP); 24.9 and 22.8 ng/mL mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); 19.8 and Not Detected monoethyl phthalate (MEP). We found a significant positive correlation only between creatinine adjusted urinary 5MBP6 and amniotic fluid 5MBP6 (R2 = 0.156, p < 0.05) in all infants and, only in female infants, a significantly negative correlation between amniotic fluid MBP, 5AGD6 (R = − 0.31, p < 0.06), and the anogenital index adjusted by birth weight (AGI-W) (R = − 0.32, p < 0.05). Although the influence of prenatal di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure on the endocrinology and physiology of the fetus is still a puzzle, our data clearly show that in utero exposure to phthalates in general has anti-androgenic effects on the fetus.
Protected areas in the Atlantic are exposed to the dangers posed by microplastics: a first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Islands mehr
Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions:
This study is the first to show that microplastic particles are already present in deep-sea deposits due to long-term contamination. Samples were taken at four locations in the depth of 1100-5000 m. mehr
Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) originating from the degradation of larger plastic debris. These microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments.
Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea.
Both on coasts and in coastal waters, human contamination has been studied. This study looks at the connection between these two areas. mehr
Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period.
While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions.
Phthalate exposure is known to affect neuronal development. Here it was examined whether there is a connection between prenatal phthalate exposure and behavior at the age of 4-9 years. mehr
Experimental and observational studies have reported biological consequences of phthalate exposure relevant to neurodevelopment.
Our goal was to examine the association of prenatal phthalate exposure with behavior and executive functioning at 4-9 years of age.
The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Third-trimester maternal urines were collected and analyzed for phthalate metabolites. Children (n = 188, n = 365 visits) were assessed for cognitive and behavioral development between the ages of 4 and 9 years.
In multivariate adjusted models, increased loge concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW) phthalate metabolites were associated with poorer scores on the aggression [beta = 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.15- 2.34], conduct problems (beta = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.34-3.46), attention problems (beta = 1.29; 95% CI, 0.16- 2.41), and depression (beta = 1.18; 95% CI, 0.11-2.24) clinical scales; and externalizing problems (beta = 1.75; 95% CI, 0.61-2.88) and behavioral symptom index (beta = 1.55; 95% CI, 0.39-2.71) composite scales. Increased loge concentrations of LMW phthalates were also associated with poorer scores on the global executive composite index (beta = 1.23; 95% CI, 0.09-2.36) and the emotional control scale (beta = 1.33; 95% CI, 0.18- 2.49).
Behavioral domains adversely associated with prenatal exposure to LMW phthalates in our study are commonly found to be affected in children clinically diagnosed with conduct or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.
Plastic waste is very often taken up by Mediterranean seabirds and can lead to death. The study examined the gastric contents of nearly 170 birds over 7 years. mehr
Plastic debris is often ingested by marine predators and can cause health disorders and even death. We present the first assessment of plastic ingestion in Mediterranean seabirds. We quantified and measured plastics accumulated in the stomach of 171 birds from 9 species accidentally caught by longliners in the western Mediterranean from 2003 to 2010.
Cory’s shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) showed the highest occurrence (94%) and large numbers of small plastic particles per affected bird (on average N = 15.3 ± 24.4 plastics and mass = 23.4 ± 49.6 mg), followed by Yelkouan shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan, 70%, N = 7.0 ± 7.9, 42.1 ± 100.0 mg), Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus, 70%, N = 3.6 ± 2.9, 5.5 ± 9.7 mg) and the rest of species (below 33%, N = 2.7, 113.6 ± 128.4 mg). Plastic characteristics did not differ between sexes and were not related to the physical condition of the birds. Our results point out the three endemic and threatened shearwater species as being particularly exposed to plastic
In Puerto Rico, the highest incidence of premature breast development in girls under the age of 8 has been recorded. This study examines whether there is a relationship between the estrogenic effects of some plastics and this phenomenon. mehr
Premature breast development (thelarche) is the growth of mammary tissue in girls younger than 8 years of age without other manifestations of puberty. Puerto Rico has the highest known incidence of premature thelarche ever reported. In the last two decades since this serious public health anomaly has been observed, no explanation for this phenomenon has been found. Some organic pollutants, including pesticides and some plasticizers, can disrupt normal sexual development in wildlife, and many of these have been widely used in Puerto Rico.
This investigation was designed to identify pollutants in the serum of Puerto Rican girls with premature thelarche. A method for blood serum analysis was optimized and validated using pesticides and phthalate esters as model compounds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Recovery was > 80% for all compounds. We performed final detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We analyzed 41 serum samples from thelarche patients and 35 control samples. No pesticides or their metabolite residues were detected in the serum of the study or control subjects. Significantly high levels of phthalates [dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)] and its major metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were identified in 28 (68%) samples from thelarche patients. Of the control samples analyzed, only one showed significant levels of di-isooctyl phthalate. The phthalates that we identified have been classified as endocrine disruptors.
This study suggests a possible association between plasticizers with known estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity and the cause of premature breast development in a human female population.
This is the first plastic-capture study of white-tailed tropic birds caught in O'ahu, Hawaii. mehr
Ingested plastics have been reported in necropsies of marine birds, turtles, mammals, fish, crustaceans and squid (Laist 1997, Ocean Studies Board 2008). Herein, we report the first record of plastic ingestion by a White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus (hereafter WTTR) sampled on O'ahu (Hawai'i). This observation adds a second tropicbird species (order Phaethontiformes) to the one sampled thus far and found to ingest plastic, and increases to 116 the number of seabird species in which this phenomenon has been observed.
This study addresses EEDCs (estrogenic, endocrine-disrupting chemicals). These can cause developmental disorders in mammals. mehr
Plastics and pesticides are examples of products that contain oestrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals, or EEDCs, which can interfere with mammalian development by mimicking the action of the sex hormone oestradiol. For instance, the exposure of developing rodents to high doses of EEDCs advances puberty and alters their reproductive function. Low environmental doses of EEDCs may also affect development in humans.
Effects have become apparent in humans over the past half century that are consistent with those seen in animals after exposure to high doses of EEDCs, such as an increase in genital abnormality in boys and earlier sexual maturation in girls. Here we show that exposing female mouse fetuses to an EEDC at a dose that is within the range typical of the environmental exposure of humans alters the postnatal growth rate and brings on early puberty in these mice.
In this study, 6 offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand investigated whether the seabird colonies living there contained plastic particles in their bodies. mehr
Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world’s oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades.
Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand’s North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments.
We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m2) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand’s pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.
In this study, 31 Caretta turtles were examined: 71% of the tested turtles had plastic particles in their bodies. This shows the high concentration of plastic in the Mediterranean. mehr
This work evaluated the presence and the frequency of occurrence of marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of 31 Caretta caretta found stranded or accidentally bycaught in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine debris were present in 71% of specimens and were subdivided in different categories according to Fulmar Protocol (OSPAR 2008).
The main type of marine debris found was user plastic, with the main occurrence of sheetlike user plastic. The small juveniles showed a mean ± SD of marine debris items of 19.00 ± 23.84, while the adult specimens showed higher values of marine litter if compared with the juveniles (26.87 ± 35.85). The occurrence of marine debris observed in this work confirms the high impact of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea in respect to other seas and oceans, and highlights the importance of Caretta caretta as good indicator for marine litter in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of European Union.
This study shows that even large marine mammals are affected by the plastic pollution of the oceans. They take plastic in the body and by the plastic accumulation in the stomach they have to starve. mehr
Marine debris has been found in marine animals since the early 20th century, but little is known about the impacts of the ingestion of debris in large marine mammals. In this study we describe a case of mortality of a sperm whale related to the ingestion of large amounts of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea (4th published case worldwide to our knowledge), and discuss it within the context of the spatial distribution of the species and the presence of anthropogenic activities in the area that could be the source of the plastic debris found inside the sperm whale.The spatial distribution modelled for the species in the region shows that these animals can be seen in two distinct areas: near the waters of Almería, Granada and Murcia and in waters near the Strait of Gibraltar.
The results shows how these animals feed in waters near an area completely flooded by the greenhouse industry, making them vulnerable to its waste products if adequate treatment of this industry’s debris is not in place. Most types of these plastic materials have been found in the individual examined and cause of death was presumed to be gastric rupture following impaction with debris, which added to a previous problem of starvation. The problem of plastics arising from greenhouse agriculture should have a relevant section in the conservation plans and should be a recommendation from ACCOBAMS due to these plastics’ and sperm whales’ high mobility in the Mediterranean Sea.
This study aims to give an overview of the effects of bisphenol A in animals and humans, as well as its effects on the environment. mehr
Bisphenol A (BPA), is an industrially important compound and is widely used for the production of polycarbonates and other plastics. Over the past few years, there have been many issues raised all over the world on the use of BPA. BPA is known to possess estrogenic activities; hence, it mimics the role of estrogen once it enters living systems. Thus, it has been placed in the category of compounds called endocrine disruptors. It can cause damage to reproductive organs, thyroid gland, and brain tissues at developmental stages, and most recently it has also been linked to cancer development in humans.
Here, in this review, we aim to summarize the various effects of BPA on humans and animals, and at the same time we wish to throw some light on the emerging field of biodegradation of BPA in the natural environment. A few studies conducted recently have tried to isolate BPA-degrading microorganisms from various sites, like water bodies receiving wastes from industries, landfills, etc. In the present scenario, with huge controversies on the use of BPA, we emphasize on bridging the gap between studies, aiming at finding the damage caused by BPA, and the studies which aim at the safe removal of BPA from the environment, with the help of naturally occurring microbes. Once this gap is filled, we will be able to find a way which will allow the use of BPA in manufacturing plastics, without its accumulation in the environment.
After several studies investigating the plasticity of seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals, this article is now focusing on the inclusion of plastic particles in fish. mehr
One of the primary threats to ocean ecosystems from plastic pollution is ingestion by marine organisms. Well-documented in seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals, ingestion by fish and sharks has received less attention until recently. We suggest that fishes of a variety of sizes attack drifting plastic with high frequency, as evidenced by the apparent bite marks commonly left behind.
We examined 5518 plastic items from random plots on Kamilo Point, Hawai’i Island, and found 15.8% to have obvious signs of attack. Extrapolated to the entire amount of debris removed from the 15 km area, over 1.3 tons of plastic is attacked each year. Items with a bottle shape, or those blue or yellow in color, were attacked with a higher frequency. The triangular edges or punctures left by teeth ranged from 1 to 20 mm in width suggesting a variety of species attack plastic items. More research is needed to document the specific fishes and rates of plastic ingestion.
In many products, bisphenol A, considered very high-risk, it was replaced by bisphenol S. This study compares these two with respect to many factors. mehr
For several decades, people have been in contact with bisphenol A (BPA) primarily through their diet. Nowadays it is gradually replaced by an analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). In this study, we compared the effects of these two bisphenols in parallel with the positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES) on different hepatocyte cell lines. Using a cellular impedance system we have shown that BPS is less cytotoxic than BPA in acute and chronic conditions. We have also demonstrated that, contrary to BPA, BPS is not able to induce an increase in intracellular lipid and does not activate the PXR receptor which is known to be involved in part, in this process. In parallel, it failed to modulate the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, the drug transporter ABCB1 and other lipid metabolism genes (FASN, PLIN). However, it appears to have a weak effect on GSTA4 protein expression and on the Erk1/2 pathway.
In conclusion, in contrast to BPA, BPS does not appear to induce the metabolic syndrome that may lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in vitro. Although we have to pay special attention to BPS, its use could be less dangerous concerning this toxicological endpoint for human health.
In this study, 1203 fish from seven different North Sea species were examined. Plastic parts were found in 2.6% of the fish. mehr
To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, whiting, horse mackerel, haddock, atlantic mackerel, and cod. Plastic particles were found in 2.6% of the examined fish and in five of the seven species. No plastics were found in gray gurnard and mackerel. In most cases, only one particle was found per fish, ranging in size from 0.04 to 4.8 mm. Only particles larger than 0.2 mm, being the diameter of the sieve used, were considered for the data analyses, resulting in a median particle size of 0.8 mm.
The frequency of fish with plastic was significantly higher (5.4%) in the southern North Sea, than in the northern North Sea above 55°N (1.2%). The highest frequency (>33%) was found in cod from the English Channel. In addition, small fibers were initially detected in most of the samples, but their abundance sharply decreased when working under special clean air conditions. Therefore, these fibers were considered to be artifacts related to air born contamination and were excluded from the analyses. No relationship was found between the condition factor (size–weight relationship) of the fish and the presence of ingested plastic particles.
This study is an overview that collects and analyzes many papers dealing with the effects of phthalates in humans and animals. They observe this at all ages and try to determine if there is a serious health risk. mehr
An very large proportion of the literature on the endocrine disruptors categorized as anti-androgens deals with phthalates, which are produced in large amounts for use as plastic emollients and additives. In this review, we bring together and analyse work on the effects of phthalates in animals and humans at different stages of their development to assess whether or not their possible anti-androgenic properties represent a significant threat to human health.
The database PubMed was systematically searched for all English language articles until July 2013 in each subject area discussed.
We provide an up-to-date exhaustive, comparative and critical assessment of both in vivo and in vitro studies undertaken to explore the effects of phthalates on the human testis from fetal life to adulthood. These results are compared and discussed in the light of the key data reported in the literature for mice and rats.
The current literature highlights the fact that
there is a huge difference between the number of studies performed in animals and in humans, with many fewer for humans;
there are differences in the way rats, mice, primates and humans respond to phthalates, for reasons that need to be further explored;
more work is required to clarify the contradictions, in the few existing human epidemiological studies at all stages of development, which may be partly explained by varying methods of exposure assessment;
in accordance with recent findings in rodents, it cannot be excluded that transgenerational effects of phthalates and/or epigenetic changes exist in humans;
a number of methodological limitations need to be solved for the in vitro and xenografting models using human fetal testis to fulfil their 'missing link' role between epidemiological studies in humans and rodent models; and
epidemiological and in vitro studies generally converge sufficiently to conclude that phthalate anti-androgenicity is plausible in adult men.
There is increasing evidence that bisphenol-A adversely affects humans. This text gives an overview of several studies dealing with the substance and its effects in animals and humans. mehr
There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) may adversely affect humans. 5BPA6 is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be harmful in laboratory animal studies. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between 5BPA6 and health effects in humans. However, in the last year, the number of these studies has more than doubled. A comprehensive literature search found 91 studies linking 5BPA6 to human health; 53 published within the last year.
This review outlines this body of literature, showing associations between 5BPA6 exposure and adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive and developmental effects, metabolic disease, and other health effects. These studies encompass both prenatal and postnatal exposures, and include several study designs and population types. While it is difficult to make causal links with epidemiological studies, the growing human literature correlating environmental 5BPA6 exposure to adverse effects in humans, along with laboratory studies in many species including primates, provides increasing support that environmental 5BPA6 exposure can be harmful to humans, especially in regards to behavioral and other effects in children.
DEHP (di (ethylhexyl) phthalate) has been implicated in damage to DNA. This study deals with this substance and thus wants to contribute to the education about this. mehr
Di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a manufactured chemical commonly added to plastics: it is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant to which humans are exposed through multiple routes. DEHP is a rodent carcinogen with an extensive data base on genotoxicity and related effects spanning several decades. Although DEHP has been reported to be negative in most non-mammalian in vitro mutation assays, most studies were performed under conditions of concurrent cytotoxicity, precipitation, or irrelevant metabolic activation. However, a number of in vitro rodent tissue assays have reported DEHP to be positive for effects on chromosomes, spindle, and mitosis. A robust database shows that DEHP increases transformation and inhibits apoptosis in Syrian hamster embryo cells.
In a transgenic mouse assay, in vivo DEHP exposure increased the mutation frequency only in the liver, which is the target organ for cancer. In vitro exposure of human cells or tissues to DEHP induced DNA damage; altered mitotic rate, apoptosis, and cell proliferation; increased proliferation, tumor mobility, and invasiveness of tumor cell lines; and activated a number of nuclear receptors. DEHP has been shown to be an agonist for CAR2, a novel constitutive androstane receptor occurring only in humans. Environmental exposures of humans to DEHP have been associated with DNA damage. After taking into account study context and relevant issues affecting interpretation, in vitro studies reported that a similar DEHP concentration range induced both mutagenic and non-mutagenic effects in human tissues and, using a much more limited rodent database, transformation of embryonic rodent tissues. The human and rodent data suggest that DEHP induces cancer through multiple molecular signals, including DNA damage.
The analyses presented here may provide guidance for similar data sets used in structure–activity relationships, computational-toxicology extrapolations, and attempts to extrapolate in vitro results to predict in vivo effects for hazard characterization.
Naturefund has put together over 50 studies for you, most of them from the last 10 years. These studies give you arguments and knowledge in dealing with plastic.