Studien zu den Auswirkungen von Plastik auf die Umwelt und unsere Gesundheit

Auf dieser Seite finden Sie Studien, die die gesundheitsschädigende Wirkung von Plastik sowie die Auswirkungen von Plastik auf die Umwelt untersuchen. Zu jeder Studie finden Sie einen Link, der Sie zur Original-Studie führt.

Marine Ökosysteme und Tiere

 
Autor G.G.N. Thushari, J.D.M.… (2020)   Zeitschrift Heliyon

Plastic pollution in the marine environment

In dieser Studie werden eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Aspekte, die mit Plastikverschmutzung in Küsten- und Meeresregionen in Verbindung stehen, beleuchtet. Neben fatalen ökologischen Konsequenzen, werden auch sozioökonomische Auswirkungen der Verschmutzung benannt.

Autor
G.G.N. Thushari, J.D.M. Senevirathna
Veröffentlicht
2020
Zeitschrift
Heliyon
Studie
/fileadmin/images/Plastik/Studien_Umwelt/Plastic_pollution_in_the_marine_environment_study.pdf
Autor Marie Y. Azzarello & Edward S.… (1987)   Zeitschrift Marine ecology (Vol. 37)

Marine birds and plastic pollution

Die weite Verbreitung von Plastikpartikeln in unseren Meeren hat tiefgreifende Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit ihrer Bewohner. Gerade Meeresvögel bekommen physiologische Effekte der Plastikverschmutzung zu spüren.

Autor
Marie Y. Azzarello & Edward S. Van Vleet
Veröffentlicht
1987
Zeitschrift
Marine ecology (Vol. 37)
Seiten
295-303
Studie
/fileadmin/images/Plastik/Studien_Umwelt/Marina_birds_and_plastic_pollution.pdf
Autor Colette Wabnitz, Wallace J.… (2010)   Zeitschrift Marine Turtle Newsletter No.129

Plastic Pollution: An Ocean Emergency

Diese Studie untersucht die fatalen Folgen von Meeresverschmutzung auf Meeresschildkröten und macht deutlich, dass der Mensch sein Verhalten umstellen muss, um die Lage nicht zu verschärfen. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle...

Autor
Colette Wabnitz, Wallace J. Nichols
Veröffentlicht
2010
Zeitschrift
Marine Turtle Newsletter No.129
Studie
/fileadmin/images/Plastik/Studien_Umwelt/Editorial_Plastic_Pollution_An_Ocean_Emergency_Study.pdf
Autor Ivar do Sul et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Environmental Pollution 185

The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment

Die Forschung bezüglich Mikroplastikteilchen in den Meeren hat in den letzten Jahren deutlich zugenommen. Diese Studie analysiert umfassend mehr als 100 Veröffentlichungen, über die Auswirkungen der Mikroteilchen auf das marine Ökosystem.

Autor
Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Monica F. Costa
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Environmental Pollution 185
Seiten
352-364
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113005642

Recently, research examining the occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment has substantially increased. Field and laboratory work regularly provide new evidence on the fate of microplastic debris. This debris has been observed within every marine habitat. In this study, at least 101 peer-reviewed papers investigating microplastic pollution were critically analysed (Supplementary material). Microplastics are commonly studied in relation to:

  1. plankton samples,
  2. sandy and muddy sediments,
  3. vertebrate and invertebrate ingestion,
  4. chemical pollutant interactions.

All of the marine organism groups are at an eminent risk of interacting with microplastics according to the available literature. Dozens of works on other relevant issues (i.e., polymer decay at sea, new sampling and laboratory methods, emerging sources, externalities) were also analysed and discussed. This paper provides the first in-depth exploration of the effects of microplastics on the marine environment and biota. The number of scientific publications will increase in response to present and projected plastic uses and discard patterns. Therefore, new themes and important approaches for future work are proposed.

Autor van Cauwenberghe et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Environmental Pollution 182

Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments

Diese Studie zeigt als Erste, dass durch lange Verschmutzung schon in Tiefseeablagerungen Mikroplastikteilchen enthalten sind. Proben wurden an vier Stellen in der Tiefe von 1100- 5000 m genommen.

Autor
van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R.
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Environmental Pollution 182
Seiten
495-499
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113004387

Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) originating from the degradation of larger plastic debris. These microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments.

Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea.

Autor Baztan et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine pollution bulletin 80 (1-2)

Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current

Geschützte Gebiete im Atlantik sind den Gefahren, die von Mikroplastik ausgehen, ausgesetzt: eine erste Diagnose von drei Inseln im Kanarenstrom

Autor
Baztan, Juan; Carrasco, Ana; Chouinard, Omer; Cleaud, Muriel; Gabaldon, Jesús E.; Huck, Thierry; Jaffrès, Lionel; Jorgensen, Bethany; Miguelez, Aquilino; Paillard, Christine; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine pollution bulletin 80 (1-2)
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1300800X

Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions:

  1. Where does this pollution come from?; 
  2. How much plastic pollution is in the world's oceans and coastal zones?; 
  3. What are the consequences for the biosphere?;
  4. What are possible solutions?
Autor Fotopoulou et al. (2012)   Zeitschrift Marine Environmental Research 81

Surface properties of beached plastic pellets

Auf der Oberfläche von Plastik sammeln sich Schadstoffe an. Die Oberflächenbeschaffenheit von Plastik spielt dabei eine interessante Rolle, wie diese Studie zeigt.

Autor
Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Marine Environmental Research 81
Seiten
70-77
Studie
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kalliopi_Fotopoulou/publication/282862582_Surface_properties_of_beached_plastic_pellets/links/5620149d08ae93a5c9243a95.pdf

The presence of pollutants on plastic debris is an emerging environmental hot topic. Understanding the surface alteration of plastics while in the marine environment increases our understanding of the pollutant–plastic debris interaction. Plastic pellets are widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Eroded and virgin polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) pellets were studied for their surface properties to better understand the interaction between plastic and compounds in marine environment.

Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, functional groups and acid–base behavior are important factors which affect sorption. Virgin plastic pellets had homogeneous smooth surfaces that do not have any acid–base behavior. Eroded PE demonstrates an altered surface that at seawater pH acquires a negative charge due to ketone groups. The uneven surface and possible functional groups could have been formed from the erosion processes while floating at the sea surface and might explain the interaction of eroded plastics with microbes and metals.

Autor Anthony L. Andrady (2011)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (8)

Microplastics in the marine environment

Durch ständige und weiter zunehmende Plastikverschmutzung der Meere, reichern sich immer mehr Mikroplastikteilchen im marinen Ökosystem an. Diese Studie handelt von der Erzeugung der Plastikteilchen, über die Einspeisung in das Ökosystem bis hin zu potenziellen Auswirkungen.

Autor
Anthony L. Andrady
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (8)
Seiten
1596–1605
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X11003055

This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition.

The relevant distribution coefficients for common 5POPs6 are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of 5POPs6 can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested 5POPs6 across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web.

Autor Cole et al. (2011)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (12)

Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review

Mikroplastikteilchen sind fast überall im Meer verteilt. Viele Tiere nehmen diese Teilchen in sich auf, werden krank und sterben. Diese Studie gibt eine Übersicht über aktuelle Unteruchugen über Plastik im Meer.

Autor
Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (12)
Seiten
2588-2597
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X11005133

Since the mass production of plastics began in the 1940s, microplastic contamination of the marine environment has been a growing problem. Here, a review of the literature has been conducted with the following objectives: 

  1. to summarise the properties, nomenclature and sources of microplastics;
  2. to discuss the routes by which microplastics enter the marine environment; 
  3. to evaluate the methods by which microplastics are detected in the marine environment; 
  4. to assess spatial and temporal trends of microplastic abundance;
  5. to discuss the environmental impact of microplastics. 

Microplastics are both abundant and widespread within the marine environment, found in their highest concentrations along coastlines and within mid-ocean gyres. Ingestion of microplastics has been demonstrated in a range of marine organisms, a process which may facilitate the transfer of chemical additives or hydrophobic waterborne pollutants to biota. We conclude by highlighting key future research areas for scientists and policymakers.

Autor Lobelle et al (2011)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (1)

Early microbial biofilm formation on marine plastic debris

Die Schwimmfähigkeit von Plastikteilen ist ein wichtiger Aspekt der globalen Plastikverschmutzung. Es gibt den Verdacht, dass die Schwimmfähigkeit durch den sich anheftenden Biofilm beeinflusst wird.

Autor
Lobelle, Delphine; Cunliffe, Michael
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (1)
Seiten
197-200
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1000473X

An important aspect of the global problem of plastic debris pollution is plastic buoyancy. There is some evidence that buoyancy is influenced by attached biofilms but as yet this is poorly understood. We submerged polyethylene plastic in seawater and sampled weekly for 3 weeks in order to study early stage processes. Microbial biofilms developed rapidly on the plastic and coincided with significant changes in the physicochemical properties of the plastic. Submerged plastic became less hydrophobic and more neutrally buoyant during the experiment. Bacteria readily colonised the plastic but there was no indication that plastic-degrading microorganisms were present. This study contributes to improved understanding of the fate of plastic debris in the marine environment.

Autor Frias et al (2014)   Zeitschrift Marine Environmental Research 95 (0)

Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters

Diese Studie liefert den Beweis, dass auch Zooplankton von Mikro-Plastik betroffen ist.

Autor
Frias, J.P.G.L.; Otero, V.; Sobral, P.
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Marine Environmental Research 95 (0)
Seiten
89-95
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113614000099

Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study.

A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m−3) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm3 m−3), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries.

Microplastic particles collected with plankton nets

Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).

Autor Lee et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Science of The Total Environment 470-471 (0)

Sorption capacity of plastic debris for hydrophobic organic chemicals

In dieser Studie wurden die Absorptionsfähigkeiten von verschiedenen Mikroplastikpartikeln untersucht. Dies ist wichtig, da sich Chemikalien an die Partikel anlagern und so gebündelt durch die Meere getragen werden können.

Autor
Lee, Hwang; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Jung-Hwan
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Science of The Total Environment 470-471 (0)
Seiten
1545-1552
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713009376

The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the ocean is an emerging world-wide concern. Due to high sorption capacity of plastics for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), sorption may play an important role in the transport processes of HOCs. However, sorption capacity of various plastic materials is rarely documented except in the case of those used for environmental sampling purposes.

Third-phase partitioning method was used

In this study, we measured partition coefficients between MPs and seawater (KMPsw) for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and 2 chlorinated benzenes (CBs). Three surrogate polymers – polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene – were used as model plastic debris because they are the major components of microplastic debris found. Due to the limited solubility of HOCs in seawater and their long equilibration time, a third-phase partitioning method was used for the determination of KMPsw. First, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and seawater (KPDMSsw) were measured. For the determination of KMPsw, the distribution of HOCs between PDMS or plastics and solvent mixture (methanol:water = 8:2 (v/v)) was determined after apparent equilibrium up to 12 weeks.

High sorption capacity of microplastics

Plastic debris was prepared in a laboratory by physical crushing; the median longest dimension was 320–440 μm. Partition coefficients between polyethylene and seawater obtained using the third-phase equilibrium method agreed well with experimental partition coefficients between low-density polyethylene and water in the literature. The values of KMPsw were generally in the order of polystyrene, polyethylene, and polypropylene for most of the chemicals tested. The ranges of log KMPsw were 2.04–7.87, 2.18–7.00, and 2.63–7.52 for polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene, respectively. The partition coefficients of plastic debris can be as high as other frequently used partition coefficients, such as 1-octanol–water partition coefficients (Kow) and log KMPsw showed good linear correlations with log Kow. High sorption capacity of microplastics implies the importance of MP-associated transport of HOCs in the marine environment.

Autor Hammer et al. (2012)   Zeitschrift Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 220

Plastics in the marine environment: the dark side of a modern gift

Ein Großteil unseres Plastiks landet in der Umwelt. Das schadet der Tier- und Pflanzenwelt und uns. Plastik reichert sich an den Küsten, dem Meeresbodens und in unserem Körper an.

Autor
Hammer, Jort; Kraak, Michiel H. S.; Parsons, John R.
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 220
Seiten
1-44
Studie
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007 /978-1-4614-3414-6_1

Plastics are one of the most widely used materials in the world; they are broadly integrated into today’s lifestyle and make a major contribution to almost all product areas. The typical characteristics that render them so useful relate primarily to the fact that they are both flexible and durable. These characteristics are very useful when plastics are used in everyday life. But when plastics are discarded into the environment they can persist for very long periods of time. Because of their nearly indestructible morphology and the toxins they contain, plastics can seriously affect ecosystems (UNEP 2005).

Use of plastics exploded

Plastics are cheap, strong, and durable and offer considerable benefits to humanity. They potentially can enhance the benefits that both medical and scientific technology will bestow to humankind. However, it has now been several decades since the use of plastics exploded, and we have evidence that our current approach to production, use, transport and disposal of plastic materials has caused, and is still causing serious effects on wildlife, and is not sustainable.

Because of frequent inappropriate waste management practices, or irresponsible human behavior, large masses one of plastic items have been released into the environment, and thereby have entered the world's oceans. Moreover, this process continues, and in some places is even increasing.

Plastic debris are accumulating

Most plastic debris that now exists in the marine environment originated from ocean-based sources such as the fishing industry. Plastics accumulate most widely used materials in coastal areas, at the ocean surface and on the seabed. Because 70% of all plastics are known to eventually sink, it is suspected that ever increasing amounts of plastic items world; they are accumulating in seabed sediments.

Plastics do not biodegrade, although, under the influence of solar UV radiations, plastics do degrade and fragment broadly integrated into small particles, termed microplastics. Our oceans eventually serve as a sink for these small plastic particles today’s lifestyle and in one estimate, it is thought that 200,000 microplastics per km² of the ocean's surface commonly exist.

The impact of plastic debris has been studied since the beginning of the 1960's. To date, more than 267 species in the marine environment are known make a major contribution to have been affected by plastic entanglement or ingestion. Marine mammals are among those species that are most affected by entanglement in plastic debris. By contrast, marine birds suffer the most from ingestion of plastics. Organisms can also be seriously absorbed by floating plastic debris, or the contaminants may derive from plastic additives almost all product areas.

Microplastics are easily ingestible 

The typical characteristics that are leached render them so useful relate primarily to the environment. Recent studies emphasize the important role of microplastics as fact that they are easily ingestible by small organisms, such as plankton species, both flexible and form a pathway for contaminants to enter the food web.

Contaminants leached from durable. These characteristics are very useful when plastics tend to bioaccumulate are used in those organisms that absorb them, and chemical concentrations everyday life. But when plastics are often higher at higher trophic levels. This causes a threat to discarded into the basis of every food web and environment they can have serious and far-reaching effects, even on nonmarine species such as polar bears and humans, who consume marine-grown food. Therefore, resolving the plastic debris problem is important to human kind persist for two reasons: we are both creator, and victim very long periods of the plastic pollution problem.

A combination of actions are needed

Solutions to the plastic debris problem can only be achieved through a combination of actions. Such actions include the following: Legislation against marine pollution by plastics must be enforced, recycling must be accentuated, alternatives (biodegradable) to current plastic products must be found, and clean-up time. Because of debris must proceed, if the marine plastic pollution problem is to eventually be resolved.

Governments cannot accomplish this task on their own, and will need help nearly indestructible morphology and initiative from the public. Moreover, resolving this long-standing problem will require time, money, and energy from many individuals now living and those of future generations, if a safer and cleaner marine environment is to be achieved. toxins they contain, plastics can seriously affect ecosystems (UNEP 200)

Autor Reisser et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift PLOS ONE 8 (11)

Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways

Diese Studie berichtet über die Plastikverschmutzung rund um Australien. Das Niveau der Plastikverschmutzung ist dort ähnlich hoch wie im Karibischen Meer.

Autor
Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
PLOS ONE 8 (11)
Seiten
11
Studie
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080466

Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories.

The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (\"microplastics\", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2).

Microplastics have the potential to affect organisms

These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

Autor Foekema et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Environmental Science & Technology 47 (15)

Plastic in North Sea Fish

In dieser Studie wurden 1203 Fische von sieben verschiedenen Nordseearten untersucht. In 2,6 % der Fische wurden Plastikteile gefunden.

Autor
Foekema, Edwin M.; Gruijter, Corine de; Mergia, Mekuria T.; van Franeker, Jan Andries; Murk, AlberTinka J.; Koelmans, Albert A.
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Environmental Science & Technology 47 (15)
Seiten
8818–8824
Studie
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es400931b

To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, whiting, horse mackerel, haddock, atlantic mackerel, and cod. Plastic particles were found in 2.6% of the examined fish and in five of the seven species. No plastics were found in gray gurnard and mackerel. In most cases, only one particle was found per fish, ranging in size from 0.04 to 4.8 mm. Only particles larger than 0.2 mm, being the diameter of the sieve used, were considered for the data analyses, resulting in a median particle size of 0.8 mm.

Highest frequency in cod from the English Channel

The frequency of fish with plastic was significantly higher (5.4%) in the southern North Sea, than in the northern North Sea above 55°N (1.2%). The highest frequency (>33%) was found in cod from the English Channel. In addition, small fibers were initially detected in most of the samples, but their abundance sharply decreased when working under special clean air conditions. Therefore, these fibers were considered to be artifacts related to air born contamination and were excluded from the analyses. No relationship was found between the condition factor (size–weight relationship) of the fish and the presence of ingested plastic particles.

Autor Thiel et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 71 (1-2)

Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: A multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores

Sowohl an Küsten, als auch im küstennahen Wasser wurde die Verschmutzung mit Plastik durch den Menschen untersucht. Diese Studie befasst sich mit der Verbindung dieser beiden Gebiete.

Autor
Thiel, M.; Hinojosa, I. A.; Miranda, L.; Pantoja, J. F.; Rivadeneira, M. M.; Vásquez, N.
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 71 (1-2)
Seiten
307-316
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13000076

Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period.

While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions.

Autor Codina-García et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 77 (1-2)

Plastic debris in Mediterranean seabirds

Plastikabfall wird von Mittelmeer-Seevögeln sehr oft aufgenommen und kann zum Tod führen. In der Studie wurde der Mageninhalt von knapp 170 Vögeln über 7 Jahre lang untersucht.

Autor
Codina-García, Marina; Militão, Teresa; Moreno, Javier; González-Solís, Jacob
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 77 (1-2)
Seiten
220-226
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13006048

Plastic debris is often ingested by marine predators and can cause health disorders and even death. We present the first assessment of plastic ingestion in Mediterranean seabirds. We quantified and measured plastics accumulated in the stomach of 171 birds from 9 species accidentally caught by longliners in the western Mediterranean from 2003 to 2010.

Cory’s shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) showed the highest occurrence (94%) and large numbers of small plastic particles per affected bird (on average N = 15.3 ± 24.4 plastics and mass = 23.4 ± 49.6 mg), followed by Yelkouan shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan, 70%, N = 7.0 ± 7.9, 42.1 ± 100.0 mg), Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus, 70%, N = 3.6 ± 2.9, 5.5 ± 9.7 mg) and the rest of species (below 33%, N = 2.7, 113.6 ± 128.4 mg). Plastic characteristics did not differ between sexes and were not related to the physical condition of the birds. Our results point out the three endemic and threatened shearwater species as being particularly exposed to plastic 

Autor Hyrenbacw et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine Ornithology 41 (2)

First evidence of plastic ingestion by white-tailed tropicbirds from O'AHU, HAWAI'I

Dies ist die erste Studie zur Plastikaufnahme bei Weißschwanz-Tropikvögeln, die in O'ahu (Hawaii) gefangen wurden.

Autor
HYRENBACW, K. DAVID; HESTER, MICHELLE M.; JOHNSON, JOHN A.; LYDAY, SHANNON; BINGHAM, SANDRA; PAWLOSKI, JEFF
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine Ornithology 41 (2)
Seiten
167-169
Studie
http://www.marineornithology.org/PDF/41_2/41_2_167-169.pdf

Ingested plastics have been reported in necropsies of marine birds, turtles, mammals, fish, crustaceans and squid (Laist 1997, Ocean Studies Board 2008). Herein, we report the first record of plastic ingestion by a White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus (hereafter WTTR) sampled on O'ahu (Hawai'i). This observation adds a second tropicbird species (order Phaethontiformes) to the one sampled thus far and found to ingest plastic, and increases to 116 the number of seabird species in which this phenomenon has been observed.

Autor Buxton et al (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 74 (1)

Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand

In dieser Studie wurde auf 6 Offshore-Inseln an der Nordostküste von Neuseeland untersucht, ob die dort lebenden Seevögelkolonien Plastikpartikel in ihren Körpern aufweisen.

Autor
Rachel T. Buxton; Caitlin A. Currey; Philip O’B. Lyver; Christopher J. Jones
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 74 (1)
Seiten
420–424
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13003809

Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world’s oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades.

Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand’s North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments.

Need for further research on relationships

We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m2) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand’s pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.

Autor Bakir et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 140

Transport of persistent organic pollutants by microplastics in estuarine conditions

Diese Veröffentlichung befasst sich mit dem Transport von langlebigen organischen Verschmutzern über Mikroplastik im Salzwasser.

Autor
Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 140
Seiten
14-21
Studie
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articlehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771414000110

Microplastics represent an increasing source of anthropogenic contamination in aquatic environments, where they may also act as scavengers and transporters of persistent organic pollutants. As estuaries are amongst the most productive aquatic systems, it is important to understand sorption behaviour and transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by microplastics along estuarine gradients. The effects of salinity sorption equilibrium kinetics on the distribution coefficients (Kd) of phenanthrene (Phe) and 4,4′-DDT, onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and onto polyethylene (PE) were therefore investigated. A salinity gradient representing freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, with salinities corresponding to 0 (MilliQ water, 690 μS/cm), 8.8, 17.5, 26.3 and 35 was used.

Salinity had little effect on sorption behaviour

Salinity had no significant effect on the time required to reach equilibrium onto PVC or PE and neither did it affect desorption rates of contaminants from plastics. Although salinity had no effect on sorption capacity of Phe onto plastics, a slight decrease in sorption capacity was observed for DDT with salinity. Salinity had little effect on sorption behaviour and POP/plastic combination was shown to be a more important factor. Transport of Phe and DDT from riverine to brackish and marine waters by plastic is therefore likely to be much more dependent on the aqueous POP concentration than on salinity.

The physical characteristics of the polymer and local environmental conditions (e.g. plastic density, particle residence time in estuaries) will affect the physical transport of contaminated plastics. A transport model of POPs by microplastics under estuarine conditions is proposed. Transport of Phe and DDT by PVC and PE from fresh and brackish water toward fully marine conditions was the most likely net direction for contaminant transport and followed the order: Phe-PE >> DDT-PVC = DDT-PE >> Phe-PVC.

Autor Campani (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 74 (1)

Presence of plastic debris in loggerhead turtle stranded along the Tuscany coasts of the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals (Italy)

In dieser Studie wurden 31 Caretta-caretta Schildkröten untersucht: 71 % der geprüften Schildkröten wiesen Plastikpartikel in ihren Körpern auf. Dies zeigt die hohe Konzentration von Plastik im Mittelmeer.

Autor
Campani, Tommaso; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Cancelli, Fabrizio; Mancusi, Cecilia; Serena, Fabrizio; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 74 (1)
Seiten
225-230
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13003597

This work evaluated the presence and the frequency of occurrence of marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of 31 Caretta caretta found stranded or accidentally bycaught in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine debris were present in 71% of specimens and were subdivided in different categories according to Fulmar Protocol (OSPAR 2008).

The main type of marine debris found was user plastic, with the main occurrence of sheetlike user plastic. The small juveniles showed a mean ± SD of marine debris items of 19.00 ± 23.84, while the adult specimens showed higher values of marine litter if compared with the juveniles (26.87 ± 35.85). The occurrence of marine debris observed in this work confirms the high impact of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea in respect to other seas and oceans, and highlights the importance of Caretta caretta as good indicator for marine litter in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of European Union.

Autor Carson, Henry S. (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 74 (1)

The incidence of plastic ingestion by fishes: From the prey’s perspective

Nachdem verschiedene Studien das Plastikaufkommen in Seevögeln, Schildkröten und Meeressäugetieren untersucht haben, beschäftigt sich dieser Beitrag nun mit der Aufnahme von Plastikpartikeln bei Fischen.

Autor
Carson, Henry S.
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 74 (1)
Seiten
170–174
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13003779

One of the primary threats to ocean ecosystems from plastic pollution is ingestion by marine organisms. Well-documented in seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals, ingestion by fish and sharks has received less attention until recently. We suggest that fishes of a variety of sizes attack drifting plastic with high frequency, as evidenced by the apparent bite marks commonly left behind.

We examined 5518 plastic items from random plots on Kamilo Point, Hawai’i Island, and found 15.8% to have obvious signs of attack. Extrapolated to the entire amount of debris removed from the 15 km area, over 1.3 tons of plastic is attacked each year. Items with a bottle shape, or those blue or yellow in color, were attacked with a higher frequency. The triangular edges or punctures left by teeth ranged from 1 to 20 mm in width suggesting a variety of species attack plastic items. More research is needed to document the specific fishes and rates of plastic ingestion.

Autor Stephanis et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 69 (1-2)

As main meal for sperm whales: Plastics debris

Diese Studie zeigt, dass auch große Meeressäuger von der Plastiverschmutzung der Meere betroffen sind. Sie nehmen Plastik in den Körper auf und durch die Plastikanreicherung im Magen müssen sie verhungern.

Autor
Stephanis, Renaud de; Giménez, Joan; Carpinelli, Eva; Gutierrez-Exposito, Carlos; Cañadas, Ana
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 69 (1-2)
Seiten
206-214
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13000489

Marine debris has been found in marine animals since the early 20th century, but little is known about the impacts of the ingestion of debris in large marine mammals. In this study we describe a case of mortality of a sperm whale related to the ingestion of large amounts of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea (4th published case worldwide to our knowledge), and discuss it within the context of the spatial distribution of the species and the presence of anthropogenic activities in the area that could be the source of the plastic debris found inside the sperm whale.The spatial distribution modelled for the species in the region shows that these animals can be seen in two distinct areas: near the waters of Almería, Granada and Murcia and in waters near the Strait of Gibraltar.

A previous problem of starvation

The results shows how these animals feed in waters near an area completely flooded by the greenhouse industry, making them vulnerable to its waste products if adequate treatment of this industry’s debris is not in place. Most types of these plastic materials have been found in the individual examined and cause of death was presumed to be gastric rupture following impaction with debris, which added to a previous problem of starvation. The problem of plastics arising from greenhouse agriculture should have a relevant section in the conservation plans and should be a recommendation from ACCOBAMS due to these plastics’ and sperm whales’ high mobility in the Mediterranean Sea.

Autor Denuncio et al. (2011)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (8)

Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d’Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina

Diese Studie stellt die Untersuchungen an 106 La-Plata-Delfinen, gefangen im Nordosten von Argentinien, dar. 28 Prozent der Tiere wiesen Plastik Rückstände in ihren Mägen auf.

Autor
Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (8)
Seiten
1836–1841
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X11002530

Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar.

Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina.

Autor Martins, J.; Sobral, P. (2011)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (12)

Plastic marine debris on the Portuguese coastline: A matter of size?

Das Ziel dieser Studie ist, Hauptgrößenklassen von gestrandetem Plastik zu identifizieren. Dabei konnte festgestellt werden, dass die Größe der Plastikteilchen zwischen 50 μm und 20 cm rangiert.

Autor
Martins, J.; Sobral, P.
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (12)
Seiten
2649–2653
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X11005169

Plastic debris is a worldwide threat to marine environments and Portugal is not immune to it. Though never quantified, items of all sizes can be found in the Portuguese coastline; therefore the objective of this work is the identification of main size classes in stranded plastic debris. Beaches sediment was sampled and in the laboratory plastic items were sorted in 11 classes from <1 to >10 mm, counted and weighted.

Plastic size ranged from 50 μm to 20 cm and microplastics (<5 mm) were the majority (72%). Most plastic fits in the smaller size classes, due to expected high residence time in the sea enhancing degradation processes, which increase surface exposure and potentially persistent organic pollutants (POP) adsorption. These results point out the important contribution of microplastics to marine debris pollution, its risks, and the need to set a higher focus on this size class.

Autor Law et al. (2010)   Zeitschrift Science (Science (New York, N.Y.)) 329 (5996)

Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre

Wie viel Plastik sich im Nordatlantik befindet, ist unklar. Dieser Beitrag fasst Untersuchungsergebnise aus den Jahren 1986 bis 2008 zusammen.

Autor
Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E.; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M.
Veröffentlicht
2010
Zeitschrift
Science (Science (New York, N.Y.)) 329 (5996)
Seiten
1185-1188
Studie
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/329/5996/1185

Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time period, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.

Autor O’Brine et al. (2010)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 60 (12)

Degradation of plastic carrier bags in the marine environment

Plastikabfälle im marinen Ökosystem stellen eine große Gefahr für viele Wildtiere dar. Diese Studie stellt eine schneller abbaubare Plastikart vor.

Autor
O’Brine, Tim; Thompson, Richard C.
Veröffentlicht
2010
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 60 (12)
Seiten
2279–2283
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X10003553

There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. Use of polymers that degrade more quickly than conventional plastics presents a possible solution to this problem. Here we investigate breakdown of two oxo-biodegradable plastics, compostable plastic and standard polyethylene in the marine environment. Tensile strength of all materials decreased during exposure, but at different rates.

Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks whereas approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. Some plastics require UV light to degrade. Transmittance of UV through oxo-biodegradable and standard polyethylene decreased as a consequence of fouling such that these materials received ∼90% less UV light after 40 weeks.

Our data indicate that compostable plastics may degrade relatively quickly compared to oxo-biodegradable and conventional plastics. While degradable polymers offer waste management solutions, there are limitations to their effectiveness in reducing hazards associated with plastic debris.

Autor Teuten et al. (2009)   Zeitschrift Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1526)

Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

Diese Studie beschäftigt sich mit dem Transport und der Freigabe von Chemikalien aus Kunststoffen in die Tier- und Umwelt.

Autor
Teuten, E.L.; Saquing, J.M.; Knappe, D.R.U.; Barlaz, M.A.; Jonsson, S.; Bjorn, A.; Rowland, S.J.; Thompson, R.C.; Galloway, T.S.; Yamashita, R.; Ochi, D.; Watanuki, Y.; Moore, C.; Viet, P.H.; Tana, T.S.; Prudente, M.; Boonyatumanond, R.; Zakaria, M.P.; Akkhavong, K.; Ogata, Y.; Hirai, H.; Iwasa, S.; Mizukawa, K.; Hagino, Y.; Imamura, A.; Saha, M.; Takada, H.
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (1526)
Seiten
2027-2045
Studie
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1526/2027

Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1.

Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride.

Transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms 

Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters.

Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development.

Autor Browne et al. (2008)   Zeitschrift Environmental Science & Technology 42 (13)

Ingested Microscopic Plastic Translocates to the Circulatory System of the Mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.)

Plastikabfall sammelt sich in der Umwelt an und wird in immer kleinere Stücke zerlegt. Dadurch steigt die Gefahr der Aufnahme durch Organismen. Dies wurde in dieser Studie an der Miesmuschel getestet.

Autor
Browne, Mark A.; Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S.; Lowe, David M.; Thompson, Richard C.
Veröffentlicht
2008
Zeitschrift
Environmental Science & Technology 42 (13)
Seiten
5026-5031
Studie
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es800249a?journalCode=esthag&quickLinkVolume=42&quickLinkPage=5026&selectedTab=citation&volume=42

Plastics debris is accumulating in the environment and is fragmenting into smaller pieces; as it does, the potential for ingestion by animals increases. The consequences of macroplastic debris for wildlife are well documented, however the impacts of microplastic (<1 mm) are poorly understood.

The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was used to investigate ingestion, translocation, and accumulation of this debris. Initial experiments showed that upon ingestion, microplastic accumulated in the gut. Mussels were subsequently exposed to treatments containing seawater and microplastic (3.0 or 9.6 µm). After transfer to clean conditions, microplastic was tracked in the hemolymph. Particles translocated from the gut to the circulatory system within 3 days and persisted for over 48 days. Abundance of microplastic was greatest after 12 days and declined thereafter.

Establish the biological consequences of this debris

Smaller particles were more abundant than larger particles and our data indicate as plastic fragments into smaller particles, the potential for accumulation in the tissues of an organism increases. The short-term pulse exposure used here did not result in significant biological effects. However, plastics are exceedingly durable and so further work using a wider range of organisms, polymers, and periods of exposure will be required to establish the biological consequences of this debris.

Autor Lechner et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Environmental Pollution 188 (0)

The Danube so colourful: A potpourri of plastic litter outnumbers fish larvae in Europe’s second largest river

In diesem Beitrag wurde die österreichische Donau zwei Jahre lang mengenmäßig auf Plastik untersucht. 4,2 Tonnen Plastik gelangen täglich von der Donau ins Schwarze Meer.

Autor
Lechner, Aaron; Keckeis, Hubert; Lumesberger-Loisl, Franz; Zens, Bernhard; Krusch, Reinhard; Tritthart, Michael; Glas, Martin; Schludermann, Elisabeth
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Environmental Pollution 188 (0)
Seiten
177-181
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114000475

Previous studies on plastic pollution of aquatic ecosystems focused on the world's oceans. Large rivers as major pathways for land-based plastic litter, has received less attention so far. Here we report on plastic quantities in the Austrian Danube. A two year survey (2010, 2012) using stationary driftnets detected mean plastic abundance (n = 17,349; mean ± S.D: 316.8 ± 4664.6 items per 1000 m−3) and mass (4.8 ± 24.2 g per 1000 m−3) in the river to be higher than those of drifting larval fish (n = 24,049; 275.3 ± 745.0 individuals. 1000 m−3 and 3.2 ± 8.6 g 1000 m−3). Industrial raw material (pellets, flakes and spherules) accounted for substantial parts (79.4%) of the plastic debris. The plastic input via the Danube into the Black Sea was estimated to 4.2 t per day.

Autor Morritt et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 78 (1-2)

Plastic in the Thames: A river runs through it

Diese Studie befasst sich mit der Verschmutzung in der Themse. Neben dem schwimmendem und sichtbaren Plastik, gibt es einen großen Anteil an ungesehenem, untergetauchtem Plastik.

Autor
Morritt, David; Stefanoudis, Paris V.; Pearce, Dave; Crimmen, Oliver A.; Clark, Paul F.
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 78 (1-2)
Seiten
196-200
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13006565

Although contamination of the marine ecosystems by plastics is becoming recognised as a serious pollution problem, there are few studies that demonstrate the contribution made by freshwater catchments. Over a three month period from September to December 2012, at seven localities in the upper Thames estuary, 8490 submerged plastic items were intercepted in eel fyke nets anchored to the river bed.

Whilst there were significant differences in the numbers of items at these locations, the majority were some type of plastic. Additionally in excess of 20% of the litter items were components of sanitary products. The most contaminated sites were in the vicinity of sewage treatment works. While floating litter is visible, this study also demonstrates that a large unseen volume of submerged plastic is flowing into the marine environment. It is therefore important that this sub-surface component is considered when assessing plastic pollution input into the sea.

Autor Koelmans et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Environmental Pollution 187

Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms

In dieser Studie wird untersucht ob mehr im Kunststoff enthaltene Additive abgegeben werden, wenn Wasserlebewesen Plastikteile aufnehmen.

Autor
Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Environmental Pollution 187
Seiten
49-54
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113006465

It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod).

We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA.

Autor Sanchez et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Environmental Research 128

Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: Preliminary study and first evidence

Diese Studie untersuchte die Auswirkung von Plastik auf kontinentelle Wasser-ökosysteme. Das Ziel lag darin, das Vorkommen von Mikro-Plastik im Verdauungstrakt des Gründlings (Fisch) zu untersuchen.

Autor
Sanchez, Wilfried; Bender, Coline; Porcher, Jean-Marc
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Environmental Research 128
Seiten
98-100
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935113001886

Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination.

Autor Obbard et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Marine Pollution Bulletin 79 (1-2)

Microplastics in Singapore’s coastal mangrove ecosystems

Bei dieser Studie wurden sieben Mangroven-Ökosystme in der Strandzone bei Singapur untersucht. An allen Standorten wurden Mikroplastikteilchen gefunden, gezählt und kategorisiert.

Autor
Hazimah Mohamed Nor; Jeffrey Philip Obbard
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Marine Pollution Bulletin 79 (1-2)
Seiten
278-283
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13007261

The prevalence of microplastics was studied in seven intertidal mangroves habitats of Singapore. Microplastics were extracted from mangrove sediments via a floatation method, and then counted and categorized according to particle shape and size. Representative microplastics from Berlayar Creek, Sungei Buloh, Pasir Ris and Lim Chu Kang were isolated for polymer identification using Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy.

Microplastics were identified in all seven habitats, with the highest concentration found in sediments at Lim Chu Kang in the northwest of Singapore. The majority of microplastics were fibrous and smaller than 20 μm. A total of four polymer types were identified, including polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon and polyvinyl chloride. The relationship between abundance of microplastics and sediment grain size was also investigated, but no relationship was apparent. The presence of microplastics is likely due to the degradation of marine plastic debris accumulating in the mangroves.

Autor Townsend et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift PLOS ONE 9 (1)

Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows

In dieser Studie werden Vorkommen, Typen und Folgen von anthropogenem Nestmaterial bei Amerikanischen Krähen untersucht. 85,2 % der untersuchten Nester wiesen anthropogenes Matrial, wie Plastik auf.

Autor
Townsend, Andrea K.; Barker, Christopher M.
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
PLOS ONE 9 (1)
Seiten
e88006
Studie
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0088006

Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas), which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes.

85.2% of nests contained anthropogenic material

We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6%) were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line) could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

Autor Omidi et al. (2012)   Zeitschrift Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 88 (5)

Plastic Debris in the Digestive Tract of Sheep and Goats: An Increasing Environmental Contamination in Birjand, Iran

In dieser Studie wurden 230 Ziegen und 185 Schafe auf Plastikpartikel im Magen und Darm untersucht. 27,5 % der Schafe und 24,3 % der Ziegen wiesen Fremdkörper in ihren Körpern auf.

Autor
Omidi, Arash; Naeemipoor, Hossein; Hosseini, Mahdi
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 88 (5)
Seiten
691–694
Studie
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00128-012-0587-x

A total of 230 goats and 185 sheep were evaluated in this cross-sectional observational study. After emptying the gastrointestinal tract, the size, location, adhesion and obstruction were examined. Twenty seven and half percent of sheep and 24 point 3 % of goats had foreign bodies. Most foreign bodies were plastic materials in sheep and goats. Forty percent of pregnant animals had foreign bodies. Drought and lack of adequate pastures in the past years have been a major cause of the swallowing of foreign objects by sheep and goats.

Wirkung auf die Schwangerschaft

Autor Caspersen et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Environment International 59

Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

Diese Studie untersucht ob Stoffe die im Plastik vorkommen im mütterlichen Blut negative Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit des Fötus oder des gesäugten Kindes haben.

Autor
Ida H. Caspersen; Helle K. Knutsen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Margaretha Haugen; Jan Alexander; Helle Margrete Meltzer; Helen E. Kvalem
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Environment International 59
Seiten
398-407
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041201300144X

Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were

  1. to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and
  2. to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs.

Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17–22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002–2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day.

Intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake 

Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.

Autor Ye et al. (2009)   Zeitschrift International Journal of Health and Environmental Health 212 (5)

Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

Die Angst vor der Belastung mit bestimmten Stoffen wie Organophosphate, Pestizide oder Bisphenol A wird immer größer. In dieser Studie wurde der Urin von drei verschiedenen Gruppen, bestehend aus schwangeren Frauen auf diese Stoffe untersucht.

Autor
Ye, X.; Pierik, F. H.; Angerer, J.; Meltzer, H. M.; Jaddoe, V. W.; Tiemeier, H.
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
International Journal of Health and Environmental Health 212 (5)
Seiten
481-491
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756471/

Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 microg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States.

MEP was the dominant phthalate metabolite

The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 microg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 microg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrifos-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates).

Autor Huang et al. (2009)   Zeitschrift Environment International 35 (1)

Association between prenatal exposure to phthalates and the health of newborns

Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, ob es eine Verbindung zwischen der vorgeburtlicher Belastung durch Phthalate und der Gesundheit des Neugeborenen gibt.

Autor
Huang, Po-Chin; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lee, Ching-Chang
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
Environment International 35 (1)
Seiten
14-20
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412008001050

Phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants for the fetus in pregnant rodents, and the ability of phthalates to penetrate the placenta have been reported. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between maternal urine excretion, the exposure of fetus to phthalates in amniotic fluid, and the health of newborns. Amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women were collected to measure five phthalate monoesters using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and the newborns’ birth weight, gestational age, and anogenital distance (AGD) were collected.

Exposure to phthalates has effects on the fetus

The median levels of three phthalate monoesters in urine and amniotic fluid were 78.4 and 85.2 ng/mL monobutyl phthalate (MBP); 24.9 and 22.8 ng/mL mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); 19.8 and Not Detected monoethyl phthalate (MEP). We found a significant positive correlation only between creatinine adjusted urinary 5MBP6 and amniotic fluid 5MBP6 (R2 = 0.156, p < 0.05) in all infants and, only in female infants, a significantly negative correlation between amniotic fluid MBP, 5AGD6 (R = − 0.31, p < 0.06), and the anogenital index adjusted by birth weight (AGI-W) (R = − 0.32, p < 0.05). Although the influence of prenatal di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure on the endocrinology and physiology of the fetus is still a puzzle, our data clearly show that in utero exposure to phthalates in general has anti-androgenic effects on the fetus.

Wirkung auf Kinder

Autor Engel et al. (2010)   Zeitschrift Environmental Health Perspectives 118 (4)

Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with childhood behavior and executive functioning

Es ist bekannt, dass eine Belastung durch Phthalate Auswirkungen auf die neuronale Entwicklung hat. Hier wurde untersucht ob es einen Zusammenhang zwischen einer vorgeburtlichen Belastung mit Phthalate und dem Verhalten im Alter von 4-9 Jahren gibt.

Autor
Engel, Stephanie M.; Miodovnik, Amir; Canfield, Richard L.; Zhu, Chenbo; Silva, Manori J.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.
Veröffentlicht
2010
Zeitschrift
Environmental Health Perspectives 118 (4)
Seiten
565-571
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20106747

BACKGROUND:

Experimental and observational studies have reported biological consequences of phthalate exposure relevant to neurodevelopment.

OBJECTIVE:

Our goal was to examine the association of prenatal phthalate exposure with behavior and executive functioning at 4-9 years of age.

METHODS:

The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Third-trimester maternal urines were collected and analyzed for phthalate metabolites. Children (n = 188, n = 365 visits) were assessed for cognitive and behavioral development between the ages of 4 and 9 years.

RESULTS:

In multivariate adjusted models, increased loge concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW) phthalate metabolites were associated with poorer scores on the aggression [beta = 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.15- 2.34], conduct problems (beta = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.34-3.46), attention problems (beta = 1.29; 95% CI, 0.16- 2.41), and depression (beta = 1.18; 95% CI, 0.11-2.24) clinical scales; and externalizing problems (beta = 1.75; 95% CI, 0.61-2.88) and behavioral symptom index (beta = 1.55; 95% CI, 0.39-2.71) composite scales. Increased loge concentrations of LMW phthalates were also associated with poorer scores on the global executive composite index (beta = 1.23; 95% CI, 0.09-2.36) and the emotional control scale (beta = 1.33; 95% CI, 0.18- 2.49).

CONCLUSION:

Behavioral domains adversely associated with prenatal exposure to LMW phthalates in our study are commonly found to be affected in children clinically diagnosed with conduct or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

Autor Colón et al. (2000)   Zeitschrift Environmental Health Perspective 108 (9)

Identification of phthalate esters in the serum of young Puerto Rican girls with premature breast development

In Puerto Rico konnte das bisher höchste Vorkommen von verfrühter Brustentwiclung bei Mädchen unter 8 Jahren verzeichnet werden. Diese Studie untersucht, ob es einen Zusammenhang zwischen der östrogenen Wirkung einiger Kunststoffe und diesem Phänomen gibt.

Autor
Colón, I.; Caro, D.; Bourdony, C. J.; Rosario, O.
Veröffentlicht
2000
Zeitschrift
Environmental Health Perspective 108 (9)
Seiten
895-900
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2556932/

Premature breast development (thelarche) is the growth of mammary tissue in girls younger than 8 years of age without other manifestations of puberty. Puerto Rico has the highest known incidence of premature thelarche ever reported. In the last two decades since this serious public health anomaly has been observed, no explanation for this phenomenon has been found. Some organic pollutants, including pesticides and some plasticizers, can disrupt normal sexual development in wildlife, and many of these have been widely used in Puerto Rico.

41 serum samples from patients were analyzed

This investigation was designed to identify pollutants in the serum of Puerto Rican girls with premature thelarche. A method for blood serum analysis was optimized and validated using pesticides and phthalate esters as model compounds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Recovery was > 80% for all compounds. We performed final detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We analyzed 41 serum samples from thelarche patients and 35 control samples. No pesticides or their metabolite residues were detected in the serum of the study or control subjects. Significantly high levels of phthalates [dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)] and its major metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were identified in 28 (68%) samples from thelarche patients. Of the control samples analyzed, only one showed significant levels of di-isooctyl phthalate. The phthalates that we identified have been classified as endocrine disruptors.

This study suggests a possible association between plasticizers with known estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity and the cause of premature breast development in a human female population.

Autor Howdeshell et al. (1999)   Zeitschrift Nature 401 (6755)

Environmental toxins: Exposure to bisphenol A advances puberty

Diese Studie befasst sich mit EEDCs (östrogene, endokrin-wirkende Chemikalien). Diese können Entwicklungsstörungen bei Säugetieren hervorufen.

Autor
Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Hotchkiss, Andrew K.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Vandenbergh, John G.; vom Saal, Frederick S.
Veröffentlicht
1999
Zeitschrift
Nature 401 (6755)
Seiten
763-764
Studie
https://www.nature.com/articles/44517#B2

Plastics and pesticides are examples of products that contain oestrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals, or EEDCs, which can interfere with mammalian development by mimicking the action of the sex hormone oestradiol. For instance, the exposure of developing rodents to high doses of EEDCs advances puberty and alters their reproductive function. Low environmental doses of EEDCs may also affect development in humans.

Effects have become apparent in humans over the past half century that are consistent with those seen in animals after exposure to high doses of EEDCs, such as an increase in genital abnormality in boys and earlier sexual maturation in girls. Here we show that exposing female mouse fetuses to an EEDC at a dose that is within the range typical of the environmental exposure of humans alters the postnatal growth rate and brings on early puberty in these mice.

Wirkung auf Körper und Gesundheit

Autor Chouhan et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Annals of Microbiology 64 (1)

Effect of Bisphenol A on human health and its degradation by microorganisms: a review

Diese Studie will einen Überblick über die Effekte von Bisphenol A in Tieren und Menschen geben, aber auch dessen Auswirkungen für die Umwelt.

Autor
Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra K.; Prakash, Jay; Swati, Surya P. Singh
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Annals of Microbiology 64 (1)
Seiten
13-21
Studie
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13213-013-0649-2

Bisphenol A (BPA), is an industrially important compound and is widely used for the production of polycarbonates and other plastics. Over the past few years, there have been many issues raised all over the world on the use of BPA. BPA is known to possess estrogenic activities; hence, it mimics the role of estrogen once it enters living systems. Thus, it has been placed in the category of compounds called endocrine disruptors. It can cause damage to reproductive organs, thyroid gland, and brain tissues at developmental stages, and most recently it has also been linked to cancer development in humans.

Summarize the various effects of BPA

Here, in this review, we aim to summarize the various effects of BPA on humans and animals, and at the same time we wish to throw some light on the emerging field of biodegradation of BPA in the natural environment. A few studies conducted recently have tried to isolate BPA-degrading microorganisms from various sites, like water bodies receiving wastes from industries, landfills, etc. In the present scenario, with huge controversies on the use of BPA, we emphasize on bridging the gap between studies, aiming at finding the damage caused by BPA, and the studies which aim at the safe removal of BPA from the environment, with the help of naturally occurring microbes. Once this gap is filled, we will be able to find a way which will allow the use of BPA in manufacturing plastics, without its accumulation in the environment.

Autor Stahlhut et al. (2007)   Zeitschrift Environmental Health Perspective 115 (6)

Concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with increased waist circumference and insulin resistance in adult US males.

In dieser Studie wurde die Verbindung und der Einfluss von Phthalaten auf Bauchfettleibigkeit und in Bezug auf Insulinresistenz untersucht.

Autor
Stahlhut, R. W.; van Wijngaarden, W. E.; Dye, T. D.; Cook, S.; Swan, S. H.
Veröffentlicht
2007
Zeitschrift
Environmental Health Perspective 115 (6)
Seiten
876-82
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17589594

BACKGROUND:

Phthalates impair rodent testicular function and have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in humans, including decreased testosterone levels. Low testosterone in adult human males has been associated with increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes.

OBJECTIVES:

Our objective in this study was to investigate phthalate exposure and its associations with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance.

METHODS:

Subjects were adult U.S. male participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. We modeled six phthalate metabolites with prevalent exposure and known or suspected antiandrogenic activity as predictors of waist circumference and log-transformed homeostatic model assessment (HOMA; a measure of insulin resistance) using multiple linear regression, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, fat and total calorie consumption, physical activity level, serum cotinine, and urine creatinine (model 1); and adjusted for model 1 covariates plus measures of renal and hepatic function (model 2). Metabolites were mono-butyl phthalates (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP).

RESULTS:

In model 1, four metabolites were associated with increased waist circumference (MBzP, MEHHP, MEOHP, and MEP; p-values </= 0.013) and three with increased HOMA (MBP, MBzP, and MEP; p-values </= 0.011). When we also adjusted for renal and hepatic function, parameter estimates declined but all significant results remained so except HOMA-MBP.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this national cross-section of U.S. men, concentrations of several prevalent phthalate metabolites showed statistically significant correlations with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, our findings would suggest that exposure to these phthalates may contribute to the population burden of obesity, insulin resistance, and related clinical disorders.

Autor Peyre et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Food and Chemical Toxicology

Comparative study of bisphenol A and its analogue bisphenol S on human hepatic cells: A focus on their potential involvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

In vielen Produkten wurde der als sehr risikoreich geltende Stoff Bisphenol A durch Bisphenol S ersetzt. Diese Studie vergleicht diese Beiden bezüglich vieler Faktoren.

Autor
Peyre, Ludovic; Rouimi, Patrick; Sousa, Georges de; Hélies, Cécile; Carré, Benjamin; Barcellini, Sylvie; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Rahmani, Roger
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Food and Chemical Toxicology
Seiten
9–18
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691514001938

For several decades, people have been in contact with bisphenol A (BPA) primarily through their diet. Nowadays it is gradually replaced by an analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). In this study, we compared the effects of these two bisphenols in parallel with the positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES) on different hepatocyte cell lines. Using a cellular impedance system we have shown that BPS is less cytotoxic than BPA in acute and chronic conditions. We have also demonstrated that, contrary to BPA, BPS is not able to induce an increase in intracellular lipid and does not activate the PXR receptor which is known to be involved in part, in this process. In parallel, it failed to modulate the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, the drug transporter ABCB1 and other lipid metabolism genes (FASN, PLIN). However, it appears to have a weak effect on GSTA4 protein expression and on the Erk1/2 pathway.

In conclusion, in contrast to BPA, BPS does not appear to induce the metabolic syndrome that may lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in vitro. Although we have to pay special attention to BPS, its use could be less dangerous concerning this toxicological endpoint for human health.

Autor Welshons et al. (2006)   Zeitschrift Endocrinology 147

Large effects from small exposuresIII Endocrine mechanisms mediating effects of BPA at levels of human exposure

Diese Studie befasst sich mit dem Vorkommen und den Auswirkungen von Bisphenol A im lebenden Organismus. Sie geht daruf ein wie genau dieser Stoff im Körper wirkt und was daraus entstehen kann.

Autor
Welshons, W. V.; Nagel, S. C.; vom Saal, F. S.
Veröffentlicht
2006
Zeitschrift
Endocrinology 147
Seiten
56–69
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16690810

Over 6 billion pounds per year of the estrogenic monomer bisphenol A (BPA) are used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic products, in resins lining metal cans, in dental sealants, and in blends with other types of plastic products. The ester bond linking BPA molecules in polycarbonate and resins undergoes hydrolysis, resulting in the release of free BPA into food, beverages, and the environment, and numerous monitoring studies now show almost ubiquitous human exposure to biologically active levels of this chemical.

BPA exerts estrogenic effects through the classical nuclear estrogen receptors, and BPA acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator. However, BPA also initiates rapid responses via estrogen receptors presumably associated with the plasma membrane. Similar to estradiol, BPA causes changes in some cell functions at concentrations between 1 pM and 1 nM, and the mean and median range of unconjugated BPA measured by multiple techniques in human pregnant maternal, fetal, and adult blood and other tissues exceeds these levels. In contrast to these published findings, BPA manufacturers persist in describing BPA as a weak estrogen and insist there is little concern with human exposure levels. Our concern with human exposure to BPA derives from:

  1. identification of molecular mechanisms mediating effects in human and animal tissues at very low doses,
  2. in vivo effects in experimental animals caused by low doses within the range of human exposure, and
  3. widespread human exposure to levels of BPA that cause adverse effects in animals.
Autor Albert, Océane; Jégou, Bernard (2014)   Zeitschrift Human reproduction update 20 (2)

A critical assessment of the endocrine susceptibility of the human testis to phthalates from fetal life to adulthood

Diese Studie ist ein Überblick, der viele Arbeiten sammelt und analysiert die sich mit den Auswirkungen von Phthalaten in Menschen und Tieren beschäftigen. Sie beobachten dies in allen Altersstufen und versuchen zu ermitteln ob es ein ernsthaftes gesundheitliches Risiko gibt.

Autor
Albert, Océane; Jégou, Bernard
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Human reproduction update 20 (2)
Seiten
231-249
Studie
http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/231

BACKGROUND:

An very large proportion of the literature on the endocrine disruptors categorized as anti-androgens deals with phthalates, which are produced in large amounts for use as plastic emollients and additives. In this review, we bring together and analyse work on the effects of phthalates in animals and humans at different stages of their development to assess whether or not their possible anti-androgenic properties represent a significant threat to human health.

METHOD:

The database PubMed was systematically searched for all English language articles until July 2013 in each subject area discussed.

RESULTS:

We provide an up-to-date exhaustive, comparative and critical assessment of both in vivo and in vitro studies undertaken to explore the effects of phthalates on the human testis from fetal life to adulthood. These results are compared and discussed in the light of the key data reported in the literature for mice and rats.

CONCLUSIONS:

The current literature highlights the fact that

  1. there is a huge difference between the number of studies performed in animals and in humans, with many fewer for humans;

  2. there are differences in the way rats, mice, primates and humans respond to phthalates, for reasons that need to be further explored;

  3. more work is required to clarify the contradictions, in the few existing human epidemiological studies at all stages of development, which may be partly explained by varying methods of exposure assessment;

  4. in accordance with recent findings in rodents, it cannot be excluded that transgenerational effects of phthalates and/or epigenetic changes exist in humans;

  5. a number of methodological limitations need to be solved for the in vitro and xenografting models using human fetal testis to fulfil their 'missing link' role between epidemiological studies in humans and rodent models; and

  6. epidemiological and in vitro studies generally converge sufficiently to conclude that phthalate anti-androgenicity is plausible in adult men.

Autor Koch et al. (2003)   Zeitschrift Environmental Research 93 (2)

Internal exposure of the general population to DEHP and other phthalates—determination of secondary and primary phthalate monoester metabolites in urine

In dieser Studie wurde die Konzentration von zwei Phthalaten im Urin von Menschen bestimmt. Dies soll bei der zukünftigen Bestimmung von Gesundheitsrisiken durch Phthalate- Belastung helfen.

Autor
Holger M. Koch; Bernd Rossbach; Hans Drexler; Jürgen Angerer
Veröffentlicht
2003
Zeitschrift
Environmental Research 93 (2)
Seiten
177-185
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935103000835

A number of phthalates and their metabolites are suspected of having teratogenic and endocrine disrupting effects. Especially the developmental and reproductive effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) are under scrutiny. In this study we determined the concentrations of the secondary, chain oxidized monoester metabolites of DEHP, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (5OH-MEHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl)phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) in urine samples from the general population. The utilization of the secondary metabolites minimized any risk of contamination by the ubiquitously present phthalate parent compounds. Included in the method were also the simple monoester metabolites of DEHP, dioctylphthalate (DOP), di-n-butylphthalate (DnBuP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBzP) and diethylphthalate (DEP).

Urine samples from 53 women and 32 men 

Automated sample preparation was performed applying a column switching liquid chromatography system enabling online extraction of the urine on a restricted access material (RAM) and separation on a reversed phase analytical column. Detection was performed by negative ESI–tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode and quantification by isotope dilution. The excretion of 5DEHP6 and the other phthalates was studied by analyzing first morning urine samples from 53 women and 32 men aged 7–64 years (median: 34.2 years) living in northern Bavaria (Germany) who were not occupationally exposed to phthalates. Phthalate metabolites, secondary and primary ones, were detected in all specimens. Concentrations were found to vary strongly from phthalate to phthalate and subject to subject with differences spanning more than three orders of magnitude.

Help to perform health risk assessments

Median concentrations for excretion of 5DEHP6 metabolites were 46.8 μg/L for 5OH-MEHP (range 0.5–818 μg/L), 36.5 μg/L for 5oxo-MEHP (range 0.5–544 μg/L), and 10.3 μg/L for 5MEHP6 (range:<0.5 (limit of quantification, LOQ) to 177 μg/L). A strong correlation was found between the excretion of 5OH-MEHP and 5oxo-MEHP with a correlation coefficient of r=0.991, indicating close metabolic proximity of those two parameters but also the absence of any contaminating interference. Median concentrations for the other monoester metabolites were for mono-n-butylphthalate (MnBuP) 181 μg/L, for monobenzylphthalate (MBzP) 21.0 μg/L, for monoethylphthalate (MEP) 90.2 μg/L and for mono-n-octylphthalate (MOP)<1.0 μg/L (LOQ). These results will help to perform health risk assessments for the phthalate exposure of the general population.

Autor Johanna R. Rochester (2013)   Zeitschrift Reproductive Toxicology 42

Bisphenol A and human health: A review of the literature

Es gibt immer mehr Beweise dafür, dass Bisphenol-A den Menschen nachteilig beeinflusst. Dieser Text gibt einen Überblick über mehrere Studien, die sich mit dem Stoff und seiner Wirkung in Tieren und Menschen befassen.

Autor
Johanna R. Rochester
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Reproductive Toxicology 42
Seiten
132–155
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623813003456

There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) may adversely affect humans. 5BPA6 is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be harmful in laboratory animal studies. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between 5BPA6 and health effects in humans. However, in the last year, the number of these studies has more than doubled. A comprehensive literature search found 91 studies linking 5BPA6 to human health; 53 published within the last year.

This review outlines this body of literature, showing associations between 5BPA6 exposure and adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive and developmental effects, metabolic disease, and other health effects. These studies encompass both prenatal and postnatal exposures, and include several study designs and population types. While it is difficult to make causal links with epidemiological studies, the growing human literature correlating environmental 5BPA6 exposure to adverse effects in humans, along with laboratory studies in many species including primates, provides increasing support that environmental 5BPA6 exposure can be harmful to humans, especially in regards to behavioral and other effects in children.

Autor Matsumoto et al. (2003)   Zeitschrift Environmental Health Perspective 111

Bisphenol A levels in human urine

Der estrogene Effekt von Bisphenol A wurde in menschlichen Zellen schon nachgewiesen. In dieser Studie wird eine neue Methode zur Analyse für Bisphenol A und dessen Verbindungen im menschlichen Urin vorgestellt.

Autor
Matsumoto, A.; Kunugita, N.; Kitagawa, K.; Isse, T.; Oyama, T.; Foureman, G. L.; Morita, M.; Kawamoto, T.
Veröffentlicht
2003
Zeitschrift
Environmental Health Perspective 111
Seiten
101–104
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241312/pdf/ehp0111-000101.pdf

The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in in vivo studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with information on smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee/tea consumption, was collected in two different years from two different groups of university students, 50 in 1992 and 56 in 1999.

Overall, the urinary BPA levels in the students in 1992 were significantly higher than were those in 1999. The BPA levelswere also positively correlated with coffee and tea consumption in the 1992 cohort but not in the 1999 cohort. We speculate that recent changes made in Japan regarding the interior coating of cans used to package these beverages may partly explain these findings. Key words: biologic monitoring, bisphenol A, can coatings, canned food, environmental exposure, glucuronide, HPLC, human, lifestyle, urine.

Autor Jane C. Caldwell (2012)   Zeitschrift Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 751 (2)

DEHP: Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenic mechanisms—A review

DEHP (Di(ethylhexyl) phthalate) wurde schon mit der Schädigung von DNA in Verbindung gebracht. Diese Studie beschäftigt sich mit diesem Stoff und will so zur Aufklärung über diesen beitragen.

Autor
Jane C. Caldwell
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 751 (2)
Seiten
82–157
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383574212000178

Di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a manufactured chemical commonly added to plastics: it is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant to which humans are exposed through multiple routes. DEHP is a rodent carcinogen with an extensive data base on genotoxicity and related effects spanning several decades. Although DEHP has been reported to be negative in most non-mammalian in vitro mutation assays, most studies were performed under conditions of concurrent cytotoxicity, precipitation, or irrelevant metabolic activation. However, a number of in vitro rodent tissue assays have reported DEHP to be positive for effects on chromosomes, spindle, and mitosis. A robust database shows that DEHP increases transformation and inhibits apoptosis in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

DEHP has been shown to be an agonist for CAR2

In a transgenic mouse assay, in vivo DEHP exposure increased the mutation frequency only in the liver, which is the target organ for cancer. In vitro exposure of human cells or tissues to DEHP induced DNA damage; altered mitotic rate, apoptosis, and cell proliferation; increased proliferation, tumor mobility, and invasiveness of tumor cell lines; and activated a number of nuclear receptors. DEHP has been shown to be an agonist for CAR2, a novel constitutive androstane receptor occurring only in humans. Environmental exposures of humans to DEHP have been associated with DNA damage. After taking into account study context and relevant issues affecting interpretation, in vitro studies reported that a similar DEHP concentration range induced both mutagenic and non-mutagenic effects in human tissues and, using a much more limited rodent database, transformation of embryonic rodent tissues. The human and rodent data suggest that DEHP induces cancer through multiple molecular signals, including DNA damage.

The analyses presented here may provide guidance for similar data sets used in structure–activity relationships, computational-toxicology extrapolations, and attempts to extrapolate in vitro results to predict in vivo effects for hazard characterization.

Autor Blount et al. (2000)   Zeitschrift Environmental Health Perspective 108 (10)

Levels of seven urinary phthalate metabolites in a human reference population

Diese Studie untersuchte anhand von Urin den Monoester Stoffwechsel von sieben oft benutzten Phthalaten.

Autor
Blount, B. C.; Silva, M. J.; Caudill, S. P.; Needham, L. L.; Pirkle, J. L.; Sampson, E. J.; Lucier, G. W.; Jackson, R. J.; Brock, J. W.
Veröffentlicht
2000
Zeitschrift
Environmental Health Perspective 108 (10)
Seiten
979-982
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11049818

Using a novel and highly selective technique, we measured monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in urine samples from a reference population of 289 adult humans. This analytical approach allowed us to directly measure the individual phthalate metabolites responsible for the animal reproductive and developmental toxicity while avoiding contamination from the ubiquitous parent compounds. The monoesters with the highest urinary levels found were monoethyl phthalate (95th percentile, 3,750 ppb, 2,610 microg/g creatinine), monobutyl phthalate (95th percentile, 294 ppb, 162 microg/g creatinine), and monobenzyl phthalate (95th percentile, 137 ppb, 92 microg/g creatinine), reflecting exposure to diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and benzyl butyl phthalate.

Women of reproductive age (20-40 years) were found to have significantly higher levels of monobutyl phthalate, a reproductive and developmental toxicant in rodents, than other age/gender groups (p < 0.005). Current scientific and regulatory attention on phthalates has focused almost exclusively on health risks from exposure to only two phthalates, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate. Our findings strongly suggest that health-risk assessments for phthalate exposure in humans should include diethyl, dibutyl, and benzyl butyl phthalates.

Autor Duty et al. (2003)   Zeitschrift Environmental Health Perspectives 111(9)

The Relationship between Environmental Exposures to Phthalates and DNA Damage in Human Sperm Using the Neutral Comet Assay

Phthalate finden sich in vielen gewöhnlichen Produkten. Diese Studie untersucht, ob diese Stoffe einen Einfluss auf die DNA-Integrität bei menschlichem Sperma haben.

Autor
Duty, Susan M.; Singh, Narendra P.; Silva, Manori J.; Barr, Dana B.; Brock, John W.; Ryan, Louise; Herrick, Robert F.; Christiani, David C.; Hauser, Russ
Veröffentlicht
2003
Zeitschrift
Environmental Health Perspectives 111(9)
Seiten
1164-1169
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241569/

Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laboratory provided a semen and a urine sample. Eight phthalate metabolites were measured in urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; data were corrected for urine dilution by adjusting for specific gravity.

Increased DNA damage in sperm

The neutral single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used to measure DNA integrity in sperm. VisComet image analysis software was used to measure comet extent, a measure of total comet length (micrometers); percent DNA in tail (tail%), a measure of the proportion of total DNA present in the comet tail; and tail distributed moment (TDM), an integrated measure of length and intensity (micrometers). For an interquartile range increase in specific gravity-adjusted monoethyl phthalate (MEP) level, the comet extent increased significantly by 3.6 micro m [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.74-6.47]; the TDM also increased 1.2 micro m (95% CI, -0.05 to 2.38) but was of borderline significance. Monobutyl, monobenzyl, monomethyl, and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalates were not significantly associated with comet assay parameters. In conclusion, this study represents the first human data to demonstrate that urinary MEP, at environmental levels, is associated with increased DNA damage in sperm.

Autor Farabollini et al. (2002)   Zeitschrift Environmental Health Perspective 110

Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A on sociosexual behavior of female and male rats

Die Wirkung von Estrogenen und Steroiden am zentralen Nervensysytem um die Geburtszeit herum bestimmt die sexuelle Differenzierung. Bisphenol A kann wenn es in Kontakt mit dem zentralen Nervensystem kommt das soziosexuelle Verhalten verändern.

Autor
Farabollini, F.; Porrini, S.; Della Seta, D.; Bianchi, F.; Dessi-Fulgheri, F.
Veröffentlicht
2002
Zeitschrift
Environmental Health Perspective 110
Seiten
409–414
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241191/

Perinatal action of estrogens or aromatizable steroids at the central nervous system level is responsible for brain sexual differentiation. Through early contact with the central nervous system, the estrogenic compound bisphenol A (BPA) could alter the processes affecting sociosexual behavior. To test this hypothesis, we studied agonistic and sexual behavior of adult female and male rats whose mothers were administered BPA (40 microg/kg/day) during pregnancy or lactation.

Testing sexual orientation and sexual activity

An intruder test revealed in males but not in females an increase in defensive behavior due to BPA. We studied the effect of BPA on sexual behavior by testing sexual orientation and sexual activity. Male sexual orientation toward a stimulus female was not affected by BPA, whereas the sexual activity test revealed a slight impairment of sexual performance due to BPA in terms of latency and frequency of intromissions. In females, BPA produced a small increase in sexual motivation and receptive behavior. In conclusion, BPA administration, both during pregnancy and during lactation, does not masculinize female behavior or potentiate masculinization processes of males. On the contrary, we observed a potentiation of female behavior in females and a depotentiation of male behavior in males.

Autor Sakaue et al. (2001)   Zeitschrift J Occup Health 43

BPA affects spermatogenesis in adult rats even at very low dose

In dieser Studie wurde herausgefunden, dass Bisphenol A schon in kleinen Mengen bei ausgewachsenen, männlichen Ratten die Spermienproduktion und das Hodengewicht reduziert.

Autor
Sakaue, M.; Ohaskao, S.; Ishimura, R.; Kurosawa, S.; Kurohmaru, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Yonemoto, J.; Tohyama, C.
Veröffentlicht
2001
Zeitschrift
J Occup Health 43
Seiten
185–190
Studie
http://joh.sanei.or.jp/pdf/E43/E43_4_03.pdf

Bisphenol-A (BPA), a xenobiotic estrogenic compound widely used as a plastics monomer, has been suspected to have a so-called low dose effect on the reproductive system when administered transplacentally. In the present study, we investigated possible low-dose effects of BPA on spermatogenesis in adult rats. Male rats (13 weeks old; W13) were administrated a daily oral dose of BPA, ranging from 2 ng to 200 mg/kg, for 6 days and examined for testicular weight (TW) and daily sperm production (DSP) at W14 and W18.

A BPA dose as low as 20μg/kg tended to decrease TW and significantly reduced both DSP and the efficiency of spermatogenesis (DSP per gram testis) at W18, showing that BPA suppressed a normal increase in DSP and TW from W13 to W18. A single administration of 20 μg BPA/kg to W13 rats affected the intensity or mobility of several protein spots in the testicular cytosol fraction as shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis. The present study showed that BPA at a low dose affects spermatogenesis in the adult rat.

Autor Foster et al. (2000)   Zeitschrift Food Chem. Toxicol. 38

Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on male reproductive development in the rat: implications for human risk assessment

Diese Studie untersuchte den Einfluss von di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) auf die Fortpflanzungsfähigkeit bei Ratten. In der ersten Filialgeneration war die Zeugungsfähigkeit stark gesunken.

Autor
Foster, P.M.D., Cattley, R.C., Mylchreest, E.
Veröffentlicht
2000
Zeitschrift
Food Chem. Toxicol. 38
Seiten
97–99
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10717378

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted a continuous breeding study in SD rats with di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) given via the diet at dose levels of up to 650 mg/kg/day. In the parental generation effects on reproduction were modest (small decreases in litter size and pup weight following treatment). However, the F(1) male offspring had marked decreases in fertility (at 650 mg/kg/day), with reduced sperm counts and reproductive tract malformations on reaching adulthood.

A no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was not established for the study [lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) 66 mg/kg/day].In a study conducted at CIIT, the majority of these adverse changes could be reproduced over a similar dose range, but with a much shorter dosing regimen covering a critical window of development (gestation days 12-20). A default risk assessment for DBP indicates a reference dose (RfD) of 66 microg/kg/day, based on a LOAEL of 66 mg/kg/day and default factors of 10 for inter-species and inter-individual differences and the lack of a NOAEL.

Human exposure data would indicate worst-case scenarios to infants (via formula) in the dose range of the RfD. A default risk assessment appears to be inappropriate since rodents, unlike primates, metabolize phthalate diesters (including DBP) to monoesters extensively in the gut following oral administration. It is believed that the monoester is the active principle for induction of reproductive and developmental toxicity of specific phthalate esters. Thus, if humans produce very low levels of the monoester from an environmental exposure to the diester, the likelihood of any reproductive or developmental toxicity via the oral route appears extremely remote.

Autor Zeng et al. (2013)   Zeitschrift Food and Chemical Toxicology 56

Approach to distribution and accumulation of dibutyl phthalate in rats by immunoassay

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) wird hauptsächlich über die Nahrung aufgenommen. Diese Studie besfasst sich mit der Verteilung und Ansammlung dieses Stoffes im lebenden Organismus.

Autor
Qiang Zeng; Chenxi Wei; Yang Wu; Ke Li; Shumao Ding; Junlin Yuan; Xu Yang; Mingqing Chen
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Food and Chemical Toxicology 56
Seiten
18-27
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691513000938

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is mainly taken up by the general population from food intake. To estimate intake of phthalates, determining distribution and accumulation of DBP in biological materials was a critical need. In this work, we set up two novel approaches with a monoclonal antibody specific to DBP to determine the distribution and accumulation of DBP in vivo. The contents of DBP in liver, kidney, stomach and testes were detected by immunofluorescence assays and indirect competitive ELISA. This data give directly evidence that indicates the distribution and accumulation of DBP in vivo.

Double-label immunofluorescence assay provides with a visual approach to determination of the distribution and accumulation of DBP. It indicated that DBP accumulated in subcutaneous tissue such as sweat gland, hair follicle. Both of immunofluorescence assay and ELISA can be used to detect the content of DBP in biological materials. Our assays showed that DBP accumulated in viscera being rich in fat, such as liver, kidney and could overcome physiological barriers to penetrate testes. The date suggested that the accumulations of DBP exposed through dermal route were less than that of oral route and most of DBP was metabolized in 2 or 3 days.

Autor Fasano et al. (2012)   Zeitschrift Food Control 27 (1)

Migration of phthalates, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate from food packaging

Verschiedene endokrine Störfaktoren die in Plastikverpackungen und damit auch im Essen enthalten sind wurden in dieser Studie näher untersucht. Sie stellen ein hohes Gesundheitsrisiko dar.

Autor
Evelina Fasano; Francisco Bono-Blay; Teresa Cirillo; Paolo Montuori; Silvia Lacorte
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Food Control 27 (1)
Seiten
132-138
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713512001247

The migration of plastic components or additives from packaging to food can produce a risk for human health, in fact many of these plasticizers and additives are “Endocrine Distruptors”, such as phthalates (PAEs), alkylphenols (APs), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A or BPA) and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA). The evaluation of some PAEs, some APs, 5BPA6 and 5DEHA6 levels in common food packaging (oil and natural tuna cans, marmalade cap, yogurt packaging, polystyrene dish, teat, bread bag, film, baby’s bottle, aseptic plastic laminate paperboard carton and plastic wine top) was carried out by migration tests.

Furthermore to evaluate the potential migration of plasticizers and additives from plastic wine tops, two extraction methods were used, one through incubation at 40 °C for 10 days and one by ultrasounds extraction. The simulants employed were distilled water, acetic acid at 3%, ethanol at 15% for wine top. The food simulant was extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by GC–MS. Comparing these results with 5EU6 restrictions all samples showed contaminant migration lower than 5SML6 and 5OML6 established. Finally, about the comparison of two extraction methods, the extraction carried out for 10 days at 40 °C may be better than the other one in order to detect all compounds.

Autor Cao, Xu-Liang (2009)   Zeitschrift Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9 (1)

Phthalate Esters in Foods: Sources, Occurrence, and Analytical Methods

Die molekulare Größe der Phthalate entscheidet darüber in welcher Weise sie in Produkten eingesetzt werden können. Diese Studie präsentiert Ergebnisse zu Untersuchungen dieser Stoffe in Lebensmitteln.

Autor
Cao, Xu-Liang
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9 (1)
Seiten
21-43
Studie
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00093.x

Phthalates are a group of diesters of ortho-phthalic acid (dialkyl or alkyl aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid). Higher-molecular-weight phthalates, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), are primarily used as plasticizers to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, while the lower-molecular-weight phthalates, such as diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), are widely used as solvents to hold color and scent in various consumer and personal care products. Phthalates have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to volatilization and leaching from their widespread applications, and thus contamination of the environment has become another important source for phthalates in foods in addition to migration from packaging materials.

Identify the knowledge gaps 

Human exposure to phthalates has been an increased concern due to the findings from toxicology studies in animals. DEHP, one of the important and widely used phthalates, is a rodent liver carcinogen. DEHP, DBP, BBzP, and several phthalate metabolites, such as monobutyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, are teratogenic in animals. Since foods are the major source of exposure to phthalates, information on levels of phthalates in foods is important for human exposure assessment. The objective of this review is to identify the knowledge gaps for future investigations by reviewing levels of a wide range of phthalates in a variety of foods, such as bottled water, soft drinks, infant formula, human milk, total diet foods, and others, migration of phthalates from various food-packaging materials, and traditional and new methodologies for the determination of phthalates in foods.

Autor Mathew et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 118 (14)

Exploring the Interaction of Bisphenol-S with Serum Albumins: A Better or Worse Alternative for Bisphenol A?

Diese Studie überprüft inwieweit Bisphenol S, welches schon in Körperflüssigkeiten festgestellt wurde, eine Rolle im physiologischen Stoffwechsel spielen kann und so eventuell eine Bedrohung für die Gesundheit darstellt.

Autor
Mathew, Manjumol; Sreedhanya, S.; Manoj, P.; Aravindakumar, C. T.; Aravind, Usha K.
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 118 (14)
Seiten
3832–3843
Studie
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp500404u?journalCode=jpcbfk&quickLinkVolume=118&quickLinkPage=3832&selectedTab=citation&volume=118

The interaction of bisphenol-S (BPS) with serum albumins using steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved, and circular dichroism spectroscopies has been investigated. The binding interactions have also been investigated in the case of bisphenol A (BPA). The fluorescence quenching pathways are different for both of these endocrine disrupting compounds. Steady-state and time-resolved studies reveal static quenching at lower concentrations of BPS and dynamic quenching at higher concentrations.

CD results also maintained the concentration dependent variation with a complete distortion of α-helices at 10–5 M BPS. Besides this, addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) results in the further unfolding of protein in the case of BPS, whereas time-resolved studies indicated refolding for BPA denatured human serum albumin (HSA). The entire study indicates an irreversible binding of BPS with HSA. Hence, these results reveal the possible involvement of BPS in the physiological pathway raising a health threat as already their presences in body fluids are known.

Autor Shah et al. (2008)   Zeitschrift Biotechnology Advances 26 (3)

Biological degradation of plastics: A comprehensive review

Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die bisherige Forschung zum Thema biologischer Abbau von konventionellen synthetischen Kunststoffen.

Autor
Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia
Veröffentlicht
2008
Zeitschrift
Biotechnology Advances 26 (3)
Seiten
246-265
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0734975008000141

Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years.

New interest in the area of degradable polymers

Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste.

This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.

Autor Staples et al. (1998)   Zeitschrift Chemosphere 36 (10)

A review of the environmental fate, effects, and exposures of bisphenol A

Dieser Text gibt einen Überblick über die Umweltauswirkungen und -belastungen von Bisphenol A.

Autor
Staples, Charles A.; Dome, Philip B.; Klecka, Gary M.; Oblock, Sondra T.; Harris, Lynne R.
Veröffentlicht
1998
Zeitschrift
Chemosphere 36 (10)
Seiten
2149-2173
Studie
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653597101333

Bisphenol A (CAS 85-05-7) may be released into the environment through its use and handling, and permitted discharges. BPA is moderately soluble (I20 to 300 mg/L at pH 7), may adsorb to sediment (Koc 314 to 1524), has low volatility, and is not persistent based on its rapid biodegradation in acclimated wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters (half-lives 2.5 to 4 days). BPA is “slightly to moderately” toxic (algal EC50 of 1000 μg/L) and has low potential for bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms (BCFs 5 to 68). The chronic NOEC for Daphnia magna is >3146 pg/L. Surface water concentrations are at least one to several orders of magnitude lower than chronic effects, with most levels nondetected.

Autor Krishnan et al. (1993)   Zeitschrift Endocrinology 132

BPA: an estrogenic substance is released from polycarbonate flasks during autoclaving

Polycarbonatkolben, die bei Vesuchen eingesetzt werden sondern Estrogen- Substanzen ab. Dadurch könnte ein Vielzahl an Versuchen schon durch Estrogen beeinflusst worden sein.

Autor
Krishnan, A.V.; Stathis, P.; Permuth, S.F.; Tokes, L.; Feldman, D.
Veröffentlicht
1993
Zeitschrift
Endocrinology 132
Seiten
2279–2286
Studie
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8504731

In studies to determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced estrogens, the organism was grown in culture media prepared using distilled water autoclaved in polycarbonate flasks. The yeast-conditioned media showed the presence of a substance that competed with [3H]estradiol for binding to estrogen receptors (ER) from rat uterus. However, it soon became clear that the estrogenic substance in the conditioned media was not a product of the yeast grown in culture, but was leached out of the polycarbonate flasks during the autoclaving procedure. [3H]Estradiol displacement activity was monitored by ER RRA, and the active substance was purified from autoclaved medium using a series of HPLC steps. The final purified product was identified as bisphenol-A (BPA) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

BPA effect on PR induction was blocked 

BPA could also be identified in distilled water autoclaved in polycarbonate flasks without the requirement of either the organism or the constituents of the culture medium. Authentic BPA was active in competitive RRAs, demonstrating an affinity approximately 1:2000 that of estradiol for ER. In functional assays, BPA (10-25 nM) induced progesterone receptors in cultured human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) at a potency of approximately 1:5000 compared to that of estradiol. The BPA effect on PR induction was blocked by tamoxifen. In addition, BPA (25 nM) increased the rate of proliferation of MCF-7 cells assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Thus, BPA exhibited estrogenic activity by both RRA and two functional bioresponse assays.

Finally, MCF-7 cells grown in media prepared with water autoclaved in polycarbonate exhibited higher progesterone receptor levels than cells grown in media prepared with water autoclaved in glass, suggesting an estrogenic effect of the water autoclaved in polycarbonate. Our findings raise the possibility that unsuspected estrogenic activity in the form of BPA may have an impact on experiments employing media autoclaved in polycarbonate flasks. It remains to be determined whether BPA derived from consumer products manufactured from polycarbonate could significantly contribute to the pool of estrogenic substances in the environment.