Kohlenstoffbindung in Wäldern

Buchenwald
Buchenwald
Foto: Naturfund

Die hier dargestellten Studien geben einen Einblick, welche Rolle tropische Wälder bei der Speicherung von Treibhausgasen haben, wie viel CO2 gemäßigte und boreale Wäldern aufnehmen, ob Stadtparks wichtig für den Klimaschutz sind und vieles mehr.

Waldökosysteme und ihre Komponenten

Die IPCC Richtlinien zu Treibhausgasbeständen unterteilen die globalen Waldökosysteme in:

  • Tropische,
  • Subtropische,
  • Gemäßigte und
  • Boreale Zonen.

Die Berechnung von Raten der Kohlenstoffbindung in Wäldern hängt von der Quantifizierung der Kohlenstoffbestände in den vorhanden Komponenten des Ökosystems ab.

Komponenten sind:

  • Bäume: alle über-und unterirdischen Teile aller lebenden und toten Bäume, einschließlich Stamm, Äste, Gipfel, Baumstumpf, Blätter, Rinde, Wurzeln;
  • Boden: Organischer Kohlenstoff in Mineralbodenhorizonten bis 1 Meter Tiefe sowie Waldboden mit allen toten organischen Stoffe über dem Mineralboden einschließlich Laub, Humus und Totholz;
  • Unterholz: Lebende Vegetation außer der als lebende Bäume definierte Vegetation.

Wälder sind hoch dynamische Systeme mit kurz- und langfristigen Kreisläufen des Wandels, weshalb diese verschiedenen Ökosystemkomponenten mit schwankender Intensität den Kohlenstoffkreislauf beeinflussen.

Verschiedene Waldtypen

Kohlenstoff wird in vielen verschieden Waldtypen, wie zum Beispiel in borealen Wälder, tropischen Regenwälder, Mangroven, urbanen Wäldern und Plantagen gespeichert. Diese Wälder unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich ihrer Fähigkeit, Kohlenstoff zu speichern und Biomasse zu produzieren. Alle Waldtypen spielen eine große Rolle im Klimaschutz. Sie liefern darüber hinaus viele Ökosystemleistungen. Schätzungsweise bis zu 75% der weltweiten Biomasse befinden sich in Wäldern. Wälder kontrollieren und beeinflussen das Klima gleichermaßen. Sie bieten Lebensraum für viele Arten, stellen zahlreiche Ökosystemleistungen zur Verfügung und unterstützen den Lebensunterhalt von Millionen Menschen weltweit.

Wälder weltweit - globale Studien

Autor I.Johnson, R. Coburn (2009)   Zeitschrift Primefact 981

Kohlenstoffbindung von Bäumen

Diese Studie befasst sich mit der Kohlenstoffbindung von Bäumen und wie dies den Treibhauseffekt beeinflussen kann.

Autor
I.Johnson, R. Coburn
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
Primefact 981
Studie
/fileadmin/pdf/Studien/Waelder/Trees-for-carbon-sequestration.pdf

Trees remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the natural process of photosynthesis and store the carbon (C) in their leaves, branches, stems, bark and roots. Approximately half the dry weight of a tree’s biomass is carbon. One tonne of C = 3.67 tonnes of ‘carbon dioxide equivalent’ (CO2-e). 

Trees in forests (including plantations), if well-stocked, typically sequester carbon at a maximum rate between about age 10 and age 20–30. As an indication, at age 30 years about 200 to 520 tonnes CO2-e are sequestered per ha in forests with productivity ranging from low to high. Reforesting cleared areas will create carbon sinks to counteract greenhouse gas emissions, and will assist in other aspects of environmental improvement such as salinity control and creation of wildlife habitat.

Autor Pan et al. (2011)   Zeitschrift Science 333

Wälder als große und langfristige Kohlenstoffsenke

Mit langfristigen Daten versucht diese Studie die globale Kohlenstoffspeicherung in Wäldern darzustellen.

Autor
Pan et al.
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Science 333
Seiten
988-993
Studie
http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/Pan.etal.science.Forest_Sink.pdf

The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, a total forest sink of 2.4 T 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year–1 ) globally for 1990 to 2007 was estimated.

A source of 1.3 T 0.7 Pg C year–1 from tropical land-use change was also estimated, consisting of a gross tropical deforestation emission of 2.9 T 0.5 Pg C year–1 partially compensated by a carbon sink in tropical forest regrowth of 1.6 T 0.5 Pg C year–1 . Together, the fluxes comprise a net global forest sink of 1.1 T 0.8 Pg C year–1 , with tropical estimates having the largest uncertainties.

The total forest sink estimate is equivalent in magnitude to the terrestrial sink deduced from fossil fuel emissions and land-use change sources minus ocean and atmospheric sinks.

Autor Murray et al. (2002)   Zeitschrift RTI International

Kompensation von Kohlenstoffspeicherung durch die Freisetzung andernorts

Diese Studie hebt die Bedeutung von „leakage“ bei Projekten zur Kohlenstoffbindung hervor. Dies bedeutet, dass der Nutzen dieser Projekte durch das Freisetzen von Kohlenstoff an anderer Stelle verringert wird.

Autor
B. C. Murray, B. A. McCarl, H. C. Lee
Veröffentlicht
2002
Zeitschrift
RTI International
Studie
http://econweb.ucsd.edu/~carsonvs/papers/817.pdf

Leakage from forest carbon sequestration—the amount of a program’s direct carbon benefits undermined by carbon releases elsewhere—depends critically on demanders’ ability to substitute non-reserved timber for timber targeted by the program. Analytic, econometric, and sector-level optimization models are combined to estimate leakage from different forest carbon sequestration activities.

Empirical estimates for the U.S. show leakage ranges from minimal (<10 percent) to enormous (>90 percent), depending on the activity and region. These results suggest that leakage effects should not be ignored in accounting for the net level of greenhouse gas offsets from land use change and forestry mitigation activities.

Autor R. W. Gorte (2009)   Zeitschrift Congressional Research Service Report for Congress

Kohlenstoffbindung in Wäldern

Diese Studie gibt einen Überblick über den Kohlenstoffkreislauf im Wald, über Messen und Beeinflussen vom Kohlenstoffgehalt und über Regierungsprogramme, die Einfluss auf die Forstwirtschaft in den USA haben.

Autor
R. W. Gorte
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
Congressional Research Service Report for Congress
Seiten
23pp
Studie
https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL31432.pdf

A report prepared for US congress on issues concerning the role of forests in carbon sequestration. The effects of changes in land use are covered, as well as the effects of forestry practises such as timber harvesting in relation to old forest growth to promote new forest growth.

The problem of “leakage” is also considered. Leakage occrus when “wood supply might shift to other sites, including other countries, exacerbating global climate change and causing other environmental problems, or that wood products might be replaced by other products that use more energy to manufacture, thus releasing more CO2.” Possible technical and financial provisions for promoting measures to mitigate carbon sequestration are covered.

Autor L. Yingchun et al. (2012)   Zeitschrift Journal of Resources and Ecology 3.3

Großes Kohlenstoffaufnahmepotenzial in globalen Wäldern

Eine wissenschaftliche Studie mit einer Datenbank über die oberirdische Biomasse und die Aufnahmefähigkeit von Kohlenstoff in Wäldern weltweit.

Autor
L. Yingchun, Y. Guirui, W. Qiufeng, Z. Yangjian
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Journal of Resources and Ecology 3.3
Seiten
193-201
Studie
http://www.jorae.cn/fileup/PDF/20120301.pdf

This study is based on the creation of a database of site above-ground biomass (AGB) of global mature forests to obtain AGB carbon carrying capacity (CCC) of global forests by interpolating global mature forest site data.

The results show a strong latitudinal decline in AGB in mature forests from tropical forests to boreal forests, and that maximum AGB occurs in middle latitude regions. Results also showed that temperature and precipitation are the principal AGB drivers in mature forests. The above-ground biomass CCC of global forests was estimated at approximately 586.2±49.3 Pg C.

Autor Fahey et al. (2009)   Zeitschrift Front Ecol Environ 10.1890/080169

Kohlenstoffspeicherung in Wäldern: Ökologie, Management und Politik

Die Ökologie des im Wald gespeicherten Kohlenstoffs ist anerkannt, aber Messungen und Prognosen der Kohlenstoffbindung in kurzen Abständen können teuer sein. Manche Waldmanagement-Aktivitäten gelten in einigen Emissionsmärkten als Kompensation.

Autor
T. J. Fahey, P. B. Woodbury, J. J. Battles, C. L. Goodale, S. Hamburg, S. Ollinger, C. W. Woodall
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
Front Ecol Environ 10.1890/080169
Studie
http://static.naturefund.de/naturefund/Naturefund/Studien/Forest_Carbon_Storage_paper_Frontiers.pdf

Carbon (C) is stored in forest ecosystems in the form of living tree biomass and dead organic matter. In most forests, the largest C pools are aboveground live biomass and mineral soil organic matter, with lesser amounts in roots and surface detritus. The rate at which C accumulates in the ecosystem – net ecosystem production (NEP) – represents the sum of changes in each of these pools. Biologically, NEP is the difference between net primary production (NPP, the annual net carbon fixation by plant photosynthesis) and heterotrophic respiration (CO2emission by non-photosynethetic organisms).

Both NEP and the size of these C pools are highly sensitive to forest management activities. The most rapidly changing pool is usually aboveground live biomass, which can be estimated accurately through allometric approaches (Jenkins et al. 2003; Kloeppel et al. 2007). Quantifying changes in the other C pools is more difficult. Root biomass is hard to measure directly, but it is usually closely correlated with aboveground biomass (average root:shoot biomass ratio = 0.26; Cairns et al. 1997), permitting reasonably accurate, indirect estimates.

Soil organic matter comprises the largest C pool in many forests, but changes in soil C pool size are difficult to detect because of high spatial variability. Soil C pools exhibit complex responses to changes in land use, such as deforestation and afforestation (Paul et al. 2002), with the magnitude and direction of response depending upon vegetation, soil properties, and climate (Guo and Gifford 2002). Thick litter layers develop on the surface of some forest soils, storing smaller amounts of C than do mineral soils, but with larger and more predictable temporal fluctuations (eg after fires or forest harvest).

Finally, in many forests, large quantities of C accumulate in the form of coarse woody debris. Unfortunately, the size of this pool is not closely related to aboveground biomass or forest age (Keeton et al. 2007; Woodall et al. 2008).

Autor Keith et al. (2009)   Zeitschrift PNAS 106.28

Lernen von hoch-kohlenstoffhaltigen Wäldern

Die Studie bewertet die Biomasse-Kohlenstoff-Dichte der weltweit größten Waldflächen neu, basierend auf einer umfassenden Datenbasis aus Biomasse-Messungen.

Autor
H. Keith, B. G. Mackey, D. B. Lindenmayer
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
PNAS 106.28
Seiten
11635–11640
Studie
http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/106/28/11635.full.pdf

From analysis of published global site biomass data (n = 136) from primary forests, we discovered (i) the world's highest known total biomass carbon density (living plus dead) of 1,867 tonnes carbon per ha (average value from 13 sites) occurs in Australian temperate moist Eucalyptus regnans forests, and (ii) average values of the global site biomass data were higher for sampled temperate moist forests (n = 44) than for sampled tropical (n = 36) and boreal (n = 52) forests (n is number of sites per forest biome). 

Spatially averaged Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change biome default values are lower than our average site values for temperate moist forests, because the temperate biome contains a diversity of forest ecosystem types that support a range of mature carbon stocks or have a long land-use history with reduced carbon stocks. We describe a framework for identifying forests important for carbon storage based on the factors that account for high biomass carbon densities, including (i) relatively cool temperatures and moderately high precipitation producing rates of fast growth but slow decomposition, and (ii) older forests that are often multiaged and multilayered and have experienced minimal human disturbance. 

Our results are relevant to negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change regarding forest conservation, management, and restoration. Conserving forests with large stocks of biomass from deforestation and degradation avoids significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere, irrespective of the source country, and should be among allowable mitigation activities. Similarly, management that allows restoration of a forest's carbon sequestration potential also should be recognized.

Autor MINISTERUL MEDIULUI (2012)   Zeitschrift Ministerul Mediului

Rumäniens Nationale Klimastrategie 2013 - 2020

Wälder tragen eine wichtige Rolle beim Abwenden der Effekte des Klimawandels.

Autor
MINISTERUL MEDIULUI ŞI PĂDURILOR
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Ministerul Mediului
Studie
http://www.mmediu.ro/beta/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/2012-10-05-Strategia_NR-SC.pdf

Forests are an essential link in the global carbon cycle, through their ability to absorbance by CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and store it in their biomass, soil and litter, thus representing the largest reservoir of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere.

Tropische und subtropische Wälder

Autor E. Pena, O. Zuniga, J. Pena (2010)   Zeitschrift Planet Earth

Bilanzierung der Kohlenstoffspeicherung in gestörten und ungestörten tropischen Andenökosystemen

Die Kohlenstoffspeicherung in Boden und Biomasse verschiedener Ökosysteme in den Anden werden in dieser Studie untersucht.

Autor
E. Pena, O. Zuniga, J. Pena
Veröffentlicht
2010
Zeitschrift
Planet Earth
Seiten
123-140
Studie
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221917559_Accounting_the_Carbon_Storage_in_Disturbed_and_Non-Disturbed_Tropical_Andean_Ecosystems

Carbon storage and changes of forest cover due to anthropogenic impacts were sensitive and vulnerable to global change, since forest biomass and plant growth depended on local climate conditions. Based on this hypothesis, the comparative analysis of carbon storage of disturbed and non-disturbed forest areas in tropical Andean ecosystems showed a relationship between carbon storage content and the degree of physical disturbance, with a consistent depletion in approximately 10 to 20 % of carbon sequestration in soils, forest biomass and land-water interaction of wetland zones in each studied ecosystems.

The net carbon storage (COS) in non-disturbed forests of Chingaza (PNN) was calculated in about 1102,4 t ha-1, and was significantly higher than the mean values observed in forest areas of Los Nevados (PNN), estimated in 762,8 t ha-1. The carbon sink dynamics in each of the compartments of the studied ecosystems is also related to three predominant climatic variables: humidity, temperature and soil moisture availability.

Those variables are dependent of global warming changes at both, regional and global climatic scales. Thus, forest areas with drier climatic conditions common in LosNevados (PNN) paramo, registered lower mean values of carbon storage. The dominant plant species on each forestry plots indicated that woody vegetation type favors carbon accumulation in system soils. Therefore, the progressive deforestation and the increased anthropogenic activities in those high mountain ecosystems suggest a strong effect on the carbon fluxes.

Autor Ray et al. (2011)   Zeitschrift Atmospheric Environment 45.28

Kohlenstoffbindung und jährliche Zunahme des Kohlenstoffspeichers in einem Mangrovenwald

Die Kohlenstoffbindung in tropischen Mangrovenwäldern wird in dieser Studie quantifiziert. Zudem werden die Kontrollfaktoren des jährlichen Anstiegs des Kohlenstoffhaushaltes ermittelt.

Autor
R. Ray, D. Ganguly, C. Chowdhury, Dey M, S. Das, M. Dutta et al.
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Atmospheric Environment 45.28
Seiten
5016-5024
Studie
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251667440_Carbon_sequestration_and_annual_increase_of_carbon_stock_in_a_mangrove_forest

In this study it is shown that carbon stock is lower in the tropical mangrove forest than in the terrestrial tropical forest and their annual increase exhibits faster turn over than the tropical forest. Variable for above ground biomass are in decreasing order of importance, breast height diameter (d), height (H) and wood density (ρ). The above ground biomass (AGB) and live below ground biomass (LBGB) held different biomass (39.93 ± 14.05 t C ha−1 versus 9.61 ± 3.37 t C ha−1). Carbon accrual to live biomass (4.71–6.54 Mg C ha−1 a−1) is more than offset by losses from litter fall (4.85 Mg C ha−1 a−1), and carbon sequestration differs significantly between live biomass (1.69 Mg C ha−1 a−1) and sediment (0.012 Mg C ha−1 a−1).

Growth specific analyses of taxon density suggest that changes in resource availability and environmental constraints could be the cause of the annual increase in carbon stocks in the Sundarbans mangrove forest in contrast to the disturbance – recovery hypotheses.

Autor R. D. Lasco, F. B. Pulhin (2002)   Zeitschrift Annals of Tropical Research 25.2

Philippinische Waldökosysteme und Klimawandel: Kohlenstoffvorräte, Sequestrierungsrate und Kyoto-Protokoll

In dieser Studie sind viele Informationen über die philippinischen Wälder zu finden, aber auch Schlüsselfaktoren und Anregungen für eine erfolgreiche Umsetzung von Projekten zur Kohlenstoffbindung.

Autor
R. D. Lasco, F. B. Pulhin
Veröffentlicht
2002
Zeitschrift
Annals of Tropical Research 25.2
Seiten
37-51
Studie
https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/data/UQ_8168/n11._philippine_.pdf?Expires=1525865307&Signature=VhTTR5tvSNceCAYV44vGo14FrZiEqoLgJkjgNV5JLROWgos7TlWMf-13hyY5PWOpe7rqEjMubFVkfyngRdlkbNlP7l5xGfhVenaAonCLmu7KGghnTIH1zLsrwS-QQtHvcO-eArRELlJuieOR6hoMRVV5X2Stz8GbF9e2jhTTRCk8gWazdbvCOyFumuUBCPru-7dvWVok30Bxd7cxY-DXasZUQCaJYHEpQJ~kvAEOrlJCeObQrTmonYYktpXQW-kVU4p4tPUealu6hvPqK1nCF6Ggm~Ju9~gl8FLBxgk3XrMboUxT7OcVAujL~WJDZBAK7lrQ5DvAdThcBPg7RLFqQg__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJKNBJ4MJBJNC6NLQ

Tropical forests have a valuable role in relation to climate change, being a source and sink of carbon. This paper reviews the state of knowledge on carbon stocks and rate of sequestration of various forest ecosystems in the Philippines. Carbon density ranges widely from less than 5 t/ha to more than 200 t/ha in the following order: old growth forests > secondary forest > mossy forest > mangrove forest > pine forest > tree plantation > agroforestry farm > brushlands > grasslands.

Carbon sequestration ranges from less than 1 t/ha/yr in natural forests to more than 15 t/ha/yr in some tree plantations. Land-use change and forestry make an important contribution in the national emissions and sinks. It is estimated that Philippine forest lands are a net sink of greenhouse gasses (GHG) absorbing 107 Mt CO2 equivalent in 1998, about equal to the total Philippine GHG emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM) presents a clear opportunity for Philippine forestry, if the threats are properly addressed.

Autor Terakunpisut et al. (2007)   Zeitschrift Applied ecology and environemental research 5.2

Kohlenstoff-Aufnahmepotenzial der oberirdischen Biomasse im Thong Pha Phum National Forest in Thailand

In dieser Studie wird die Kohlenstoffbindung von überirdischer Biomasse verschiedener Waldökosysteme in Thailand berechnet.

Autor
J. Terakunpisut, N. Gajaseni, N. Ruankawe
Veröffentlicht
2007
Zeitschrift
Applied ecology and environemental research 5.2
Seiten
93-102
Studie
http://aloki.hu/pdf/0502_093102.pdf

This study assessed the potential of carbon sequestration on aboveground biomass in the different forest ecosystems in Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand. The assessment was based on a total inventory for woody stems at ≥ 4.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Aboveground biomass was estimated using the allometric equation and aboveground carbon stock was calculated by multiplying the biomass with a 0.5 conversion factor. From the results, carbon sequestration among varied different types of forests.

Tropical rain forest (Ton Mai Yak station) had higher carbon stock than dry evergreen forest (KP 27 station) and mixed deciduous forest (Pong Phu Ron station) with 137.73 ± 48.07, 70.29 ± 7.38 and 48.14 ± 16.72 tonne C/ha, respectively. In the study area, all forest types had a similar pattern of tree size class, with a dominant size class at ≥ 4.5 - 20 cm. The ≥ 4.5 - 20 cm trees potentially provided a greater carbon sequestration in tropical rain forest and dry evergreen forest while the size of > 20 - 40 cm gave potentially high carbon sequestration in mixed deciduous forest.

In conclusion, the greatest carbon sequestration potential is in mixed deciduous forest followed by tropical rain forest and dry evergreen forest in Thong Pha Phum National Forest.

Autor Shimamoto (2014)   Zeitschrift Forest Ecology and Management 329

Wie viel Kohlenstoff wird bei der Wiederherstellung von Tropenwäldern gebunden? Schätzungen von Baumarten im brasilianischen atlantischen Wald

Diese Studie beschäftigt sich mit der Akkumulation von Biomasse und mit der Kohlenstoffbindung von wiederhergestellten Wäldern im Laufe der Zeit, um die Bedeutung dieser Wälder für den Klimaschutz aufzuzeigen.

Autor
C. Y. Shimamoto, P. C. Botosso, M. C. M. Marques
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Forest Ecology and Management 329
Seiten
5016-5024
Studie
https://www.academia.edu/7744544/How_much_carbon_is_sequestered_during_the_restoration_of_tropical_forests_Estimates_from_tree_species_in_the_Brazilian_Atlantic_forest

In the present study the aboveground biomass (AGB) of 10 tree species (fast-growing and slow-growing tree species) that are representative of the Brazilian Atlantic forest was evaluated to test if biomass accumulation varies with tree age and ecological group (fast and slow-growing).

Differences suggest that the fast-growing tree species contribute more to the carbon stock during the early years (approximately 37 years) of the restoration and that the slow-growing species contribute more significantly during the later stages of succession. We estimated that second-growth forests (41–60 years old) accumulate more than two-fold carbon than immature forest (21–40 years old) and much more than ten-fold carbon than young forests (7–20 years old).

These differences in carbon sequestration magnitudes suggest that services provided by restoration areas, can increase exponentially in the first 60 years, and this is particularly important for future conservation and management of areas undergoing restoration.

Autor Thant et al. (2012)   Zeitschrift Tropics 21.1

Kohlenstoffsequestrierung durch Mangrovenplantagen und eine natürliche Regenerationsfläche im Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

Diese Studie vergleicht die Kohlenstoffbindung eines natürlich wiederhergestellten Mangrovenwald und verschiedener Mangrovenplantagen. Auch andere Ökosystemleistungen der Mangrovenwälder werden genannt.

Autor
Y. M. Thant, M. Kanzaki, S. Ohta, M. M. Than
Veröffentlicht
2012
Zeitschrift
Tropics 21.1
Seiten
1-10
Studie
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tropics/21/1/21_1/_article/-char/ja/

Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration. Results are promising concerning the feasibility of mangrove plantations and natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The induced natural regeneration method showed high feasibility as a low cost management to enhance the rapid restoration of the mangrove ecosystem.

Autor A. N. Gray, T. R. Whittier (2014)   Zeitschrift Forest Ecology and Management 328

Kohlenstoffvorräte und -veränderungen in den Wäldern des pazifischen Nordwestens und die Rolle von Störungen, Management und Wachstum

Zusätzlich zur Erfassung von Kohlenstoffgehalt und -strom werden in dieser Studie die Einflussfaktoren auf Kohlenstoffdichte und-strom in Wäldern des Pazifischen Nordwestens ermittelt.

Autor
A. N. Gray, T. R. Whittier
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Forest Ecology and Management 328
Seiten
167-178
Studie
https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2014_gray.pdf

The National Forest System (NFS) of the United States plays an important role in the carbon cycle because these lands make up a large proportion of the forested land in the country and commonly store more wood per unit area than other forest ownerships. In addition to sustaining natural resources, these lands are managed for multiple objectives that do not always align with maximizing carbon (C) sequestration.

The objectives of this study were to determine C stocks and flux in measured pools on Pacific Northwest Region NFS lands and the major ecological drivers of C flux. Tree, dead wood, and understory vegetation data from 11,435 systematically-placed inventory plots were compiled and  growth, mortality,decay, removals, and disturbance events based on two full measurements spanning 1993–2007 were estimated.

Autor Sitoe et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Forests 5.8

Biomasse und Kohlenstoffvorräte der Sofala Bay Mangrovenwälder

Mangrovenwälder gehören zu den wichtigsten kohlenstoffbindenden Ökosystemen der Welt. Diese Studie hebt insbesondere die Wichtigkeit der Böden dieser Wälder hervor.

Autor
A. A. Sitoe, L. J. C. Mandlate, B. S. Guedes
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Forests 5.8
Seiten
1967-1981
Studie
http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/5/8/1967

This study was carried out in the mangrove forests of Sofala Bay, Central Mozambique, with the aim of quantifying carbon stocks of live and dead plant and soil components. The methods followed the procedures developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) for mangrove forests.

The average total carbon storage of Sofala Bay mangrove was 218.5 Mg·ha−1, of which around 73% are stored in the soil. Mangrove conservation has the potential for REDD+ programs, especially in regions like Mozambique, which contains extensive mangrove areas with high deforestation and degradation rates.

Autor B. Mercer (2015)   Zeitschrift International Sustainability Unit

Das Regenwaldprojekt der Prinzen

Aktuelle Studien deuten darauf hin, dass 14-21% aller vom Menschen verursachter CO2-Emissionen auf Abholzung und Abbau tropischer Wälder zurückzuführen ist.

Autor
B. Mercer
Veröffentlicht
2015
Zeitschrift
International Sustainability Unit
Seiten
1-126
Studie
https://www.pcfisu.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Princes-Charities-International-Sustainability-Unit-Tropical-Forests-A-Review.pdf

Tropical forests provide a wealth of ecosystem services that are of critical importance to humanity: storage of a quarter of a trillion tons of carbon in above and below ground biomass, equivalent to one third of the carbon stored in economically recoverable oil, gas and coal reserves; reduction of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere via sequestration, with potential to further increase carbon storage in intact, degraded and secondary forests; regulation of local, regional and global water and climate services within tropical forests and beyond (including in agricultural areas), through interconnected functions, including: water storage and transportation; cloud formation and rainfall generation; and the cooling effect of evapotranspiration; maintenance of a rich array of flora and fauna which interact ecologically and environmentally to ensure forest renewal and resilience – and provide an irreplaceable storehouse of genetic material from which useful products can potentially be derived; soil formation and protection, including regulation of sediment outflows; provision of shelter and livelihoods for indigenous communities.

Autor R. J. Moulton, K. R. Richards (1990)   Zeitschrift United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

Kosten von Kohlenstoffbindung durch Baumpflanzung und Waldbewirtschaftung in den Vereinigten Staaten

A report with data on planting practices and methods to calculate ecosystem carbon and timber carbon yields as well as carbon sequestration rates for rural tree planting and management programmes.

Autor
R. J. Moulton, K. R. Richards
Veröffentlicht
1990
Zeitschrift
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
Seiten
44pp
Studie
https://archive.org/details/CAT91946672

A report that examines the potential contribution of rural tree planting programmes to redcung CO2 emissions in the USA. Croplands, pasture and forest lands are included in the study. Planting and management data is based on US Department of Agriculture recommendations.

Wälder in gemäßigten und borealen Zonen

Autor Botkin et al (2008)   Zeitschrift Biogeochemistry 20

Biomasse- und Kohlenstoffspeicherung des nordamerikanischen Laubwaldes

Eine Studie, in der die Biomasse und Kohlenstoffspeicherung des Laubwaldes Nordamerikas in Feldstudien ermittelt werden.

Autor
D. B. Botkin, L. G. Simpson, R. A. Nisbet
Veröffentlicht
2008
Zeitschrift
Biogeochemistry 20
Seiten
1-17
Studie
http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol229/botkin_1993.pdf

Field measures of tree and shrub dimensions were used with established biomass equations in a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design to estimate above-ground ovendry woody biomass and carbon storage of the eastern deciduous forest of North America. Biomass averaged 8.1 + 1.4 (95% C.I.) kg/m2 and totaled 18.1 ? 3.1 (95% C.I.) gigatons. Carbon storage averaged 3.6 + 0.6 (95% C.I.) kg/m2 and totaled 8.1 ? 1.4 (95% C.I.) gigatons. 

These values are lower than previous estimates commonly used in the analysis of the global carbon budget which range from 17.1 to 23.1 kg/m2 for biomass and 7.7 to 10.4 kg/m2 for carbon storage.

Autor Bernier et al. (2011)   Zeitschrift Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151

Boreale Flechtenwälder: eine mögliche negative Rückkopplung zum Klimawandel im östlichen Nordamerika

Die Verlagerung von dichten Wäldern zu offenen Wäldern mit Flechten führt zu einer Erhöhung des Rückstrahlvermögens und es ist fraglich, ob eine Aufforstung dieser Wälder in Bezug auf das Klima sinnvoll ist.

Autor
P. Y. Bernier, R. L. Desjardins, Y. Karimi-Zindashty, D. Worth, A. Beaudoin, Y. Luo et al.
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151
Seiten
521-528
Studie
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251524925_Boreal_lichen_woodlands_A_possible_negative_feedback_to_climate_change_in_eastern_North_America

Forest fires in closed-canopy black spruce forests cause shifts towards open lichen–spruce woodlands in parts of the boreal forest of eastern North America. The shift from dark black spruce canopies to pale lichen ground cover offers a dramatic contrast in reflectance that may compensate for the CO2 emissions from forest fires in terms of radiative forcing.

This study on climate change feedback that would result from the generation of lichen woodlands through changes in albedo and in stored carbon showed that  the generation of open lichen woodlands provides a possible negative feedback to climate change and that carbon sequestration through the afforestation of boreal lichen woodlands may not provide desired climate change mitigation benefits.

Autor Dobarco et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Forests 5.4

Bodenkohlenstoffvorrat und -stabilität im Aspen-Nadelwald in den Bergwäldern Utahs

An assessment of the potential impact of conifer encroachment on soil organic carbon dynamics and storage in montane aspen-conifer forest systems.

Autor
M. R. Dobarco, H. Van Miegroet
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Forests 5.4
Seiten
666-6885
Studie
http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/5/4/666

A compiled database of site above-ground biomass (AGB) of global mature forests to obtain AGB carbon carrying capacity (CCC) of global forests by interpolating global mature forest site data. The results show a strong latitudinal decline in AGB in mature forests from tropical forests to boreal forests, and that maximum AGB occurs in middle latitude regions.

Results also showed that temperature and precipitation are the principal AGB drivers in mature forests. The above-ground biomass CCC of global forests was estimated at approximately 586.2±49.3 Pg C.

Autor R. A. Birdsey (1992)   Zeitschrift United States Department of Agriculture: Forest Service. Global Change Research Northeastern Forest Experiment Station Radnor, PA

Kohlenstoffbindung und -speicherung in Waldökosystemen der Vereinigten Staaten

In dieser Studie wird die Kohlenstoffspeicherung der verschieden Waldtypen in den Vereinigten Staaten untersucht, um die Relevanz von Wäldern für die Reduzierung von Kohlenstoffdioxid in der Luft zu verdeutlichen.

Autor
R. A. Birdsey
Veröffentlicht
1992
Zeitschrift
United States Department of Agriculture: Forest Service. Global Change Research Northeastern Forest Experiment Station Radnor, PA
Seiten
1-51
Studie
https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_wo059.pdf

A technical report that provides information in the form of tables on carbon storage in the forest systems of the USA. Data is given on different forest types and production cycles. Information is broken down into the principal components used to estimate carbon storage, namely Trees:  all above and below-ground portions of all live and dead trees, Soil: all organic carbon in mineral horizons to a depth of I meter, excluding coarse tree roots; Forest floor: all dead organic matter above the mineral soil horizons and Understory:  all live vegetation except that vegetation defined as live trees.

Autor D. C. McKinley et al. (2010)   Zeitschrift Ecological Applications 21.6

Eine Synthese von aktuellem Wissen über Wälder und Kohlenstoffspeicherung in den Vereinigten Staaten

Dieser Report bietet einen Überblick über den Kohlenstoffkreislauf und -bindung und über den Status quo der Forschung über Wälder und Kohlenstoffbindung in den USA.

Autor
D. C. McKinley et al.
Veröffentlicht
2010
Zeitschrift
Ecological Applications 21.6
Seiten
1902-1924
Studie
https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2011_mckinley_d001.pdf

Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. The evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs are examined for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) carbon management in existing forests; and (3) the use of wood as biomass energy, in place of other building materials, or in wood products for carbon storage.

Many strategies can increase forest sector carbon mitigation above the current 162–256 Tg C/yr, and that many strategies have co-benefits such as biodiversity, water, and economic opportunities. Each strategy also has trade-offs, risks, and uncertainties including possible leakage, permanence, disturbances, and climate change effects.

Autor B. J. Stocks, P. C. Ward (2010)   Zeitschrift Climate Change Research Report CCRR-20. (OMNR)

Klimawandel, Kohlenstoffbindung und Waldbrandschutz in der kanadischen borealen Zone

Ein Artikel, der wissenschaftliche und politische Informationen für Forst- und Feuermanagement für die Wälder in Ontario bereitstellt.

Autor
B. J. Stocks, P. C. Ward
Veröffentlicht
2010
Zeitschrift
Climate Change Research Report CCRR-20. (OMNR)
Seiten
1-35
Studie
https://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/publications?id=34354

Boreal forests and peatlands in northern circumpolar areas, including Ontario, store globally significant amounts of carbon but are subject to forest fires and other natural disturbances that cycle carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Climate change projections for the 21st century suggest that wildland fire regimes will become more severe, with more fires, more extreme weather events, and the likelihood of increased area burned. Even if fire suppression resources are increased to cope with the changing fire conditions, suppression efforts will be challenged.

This literature review and policy discussion is intended to provide Ontario's forest and fire managers with current scientific and policy information to inform future decision-making.

Autor Wamelink et al. (2008)   Zeitschrift Forest Ecology and Management 258.8

Modellierung der Auswirkungen von Änderungen der Kohlendioxidkonzentration, des Klimas und der Stickstoffdeposition auf die Kohlenstoffbindung in europäischen Wäldern und Waldböden

In dieser Studie wird, mit Hilfe verschiedener Modelle, der Einfluss von Veränderungen in der Atmosphäre auf die Kohlenstoffanreicherung in Bäumen und Böden in Europa untersucht.

Autor
G. W. W. Wamelink, H. J. J.Wieggers, G. J. Reinds, J. Kros, J. P. Mol-Dijkstra, M. van Oijen et al.
Veröffentlicht
2008
Zeitschrift
Forest Ecology and Management 258.8
Seiten
1794-1805
Studie
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/8164/

Changes in the Earth’s atmosphere are expected to influence the growth, and therefore, carbon accumulation of European forests. The authors identified three major changes: (1) a rise in carbon dioxide concentration, (2) climate change, resulting in higher temperatures and changes in precipitation and (3) a decrease in nitrogen deposition.

The authors used a hydrological model (Watbal), a soil model (SMART2) and a vegetation model (SUMO2) to asses the effect of expected changes in the period 1990 up to 2070 on the carbon accumulation in trees and soils of 166 European forest plots.  Predicted effects of changes in climate, CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by trees depended largely on tree species and location (latitude).

Autor R. C. Dewar, M. G. R. Cannell (1992)   Zeitschrift Tree Physiology 11.1

Kohlenstoffsequestrierung in den Baumprodukten und Böden von Waldplantagen: eine Analyse von Proben aus Großbritannien

Diese Studie enthält Informationen zur Kohlenstoffspeicherung von Bäumen, Laub, organischen Bodenbestandteilen und Holzprodukten in Plantagen.

Autor
R. C. Dewar, M. G. R. Cannell
Veröffentlicht
1992
Zeitschrift
Tree Physiology 11.1
Seiten
49-71
Studie
https://academic.oup.com/treephys/article-abstract/11/1/49/1650012

A carbon-flow model for managed forest plantations was used to estimate carbon storage in UK plantations differing in Yield Class (growth rate), thinning regime and species characteristics. Time-averaged, total carbon storage (at equilibrium) was generally in the range 40-80 Mg C ha(-1) in trees, 15-25 Mg C ha(-1) in above- and belowground litter, 70-90 Mg C ha(-1) in soil organic matter and 20-40 Mg C ha(-1) in wood products (assuming product lifetime equalled rotation length)...

Autor Ding et al. (2009)   Zeitschrift FEEM Note di Lavoro 10.2010

Europäische Wälder und die Kohlenstoffbindung

Unterteilt man die Waldgebiete nach Breitengraden, beobachten wir eine ungleiche Verteilung von Waldtypen über die vier klassifizierten Klimaregionen in Europa.

Autor
H. Ding, P. Nunes, S. Teelucksingh
Veröffentlicht
2009
Zeitschrift
FEEM Note di Lavoro 10.2010
Seiten
23pp
Studie
https://www.feem.it/en/publications/feem-working-papers-note-di-lavoro-series/european-forests-and-carbon-sequestration-services-an-economic-assessment-of-climate-change-impacts/

With respect to the sensitivity of tree species to temperature changes, this has been studied in terms of specific forest types located in different geo-climatic regions in Europe. In Mediterranean Europe, most forests consist of sclerophyllous and some deciduous species that are adapted to summer soil water deficits. Temperature changes may allow the expansion of some thermophilous tree species (e.g. quercus pyrenaica) when water availability is sufficient (IPCC, 2001).

Similarly, Garcia-Gonzalo et al. (2007) find that in Scandinavian Europe, where growth of boreal forests is currently limited by a short growing season, low summer temperature and short supply of nitrogen, climate change can be associated with an increase in forest productivity in terms of carbon stock. This is because an increase in temperature can prolong the growing season, enhance the decomposition of soil organic matter and thus increase the supply of nitrogen.

In turn, these changes may have positive impacts on forest growth, timber yield and the accumulation of carbon in the boreal forests (Melillo et al. 1993; Lloyd and Taylor 1994; Giardian and Ryan 2000; Jarvis and Linder 2000; Luo et al. 2001).

Autor Sandwood Enterprise (2013)   Zeitschrift Sandwood Enterprise

Quantifizierung der Kohlenstoffspeicherung in Wäldern im Exmoor-Nationalpark

Für den Waldbestand des Exmoor National Parks wurden in dieser Studie Kohlenstoffbindung und -emissionen geschätzt.

Autor
Sandwood Enterprise
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Sandwood Enterprise
Seiten
1-36
Studie
http://www.exmoor-nationalpark.gov.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/426722/Exmoor-Woodland-Carbon-Final-Draft-Report.pdf

The Forestry Commission National Woodland Inventory (1999) shows the area of woodland over 2 hectares in Exmoor National Park (ENP) as 8,331 hectares. A recent but incomplete inventory suggests that the area of woodland over 0.5 hectares is currently 9,300 hectares. From the 1999 inventory, 34% of the woodland is conifer and 66 % is broadleaved. Using the 1999 inventory data the following estimates of carbon storage, sequestration and emissions have been developed.

Autor K. G. Black, E. P. Farrell (2005)   Zeitschrift COFORD, National Council for Forest Research and Development

Kohlenstoffbindung und irische Waldökosysteme

Das CARBiFOR Projekt liefert Daten zu Kohlenstoffbeständen und –bindung des Hauptwaldtyps in Irland und ermittelt das Potential zur Kohlenstoffspeicherung dieser Wälder.

Autor
K. G. Black, E. P. Farrell
Veröffentlicht
2005
Zeitschrift
COFORD, National Council for Forest Research and Development
Seiten
1-76
Studie
http://www.ucd.ie/cforrep/documents/CARBiFOR%20-final%20report.pdf

Carbon sequestration work carried out as part of the CARBiFOR project to update estimates of carbon uptake in Sitka spruce forest stands. Ecosystem level uptakes and fluxes of greenhouse gases were also assessed to contribute to a better understanding on how forest ecosystems interact with the global climate.

Autor K. A. Byrne, K. Black (2011)   Zeitschrift COFORD PUBLICATION - Envionment nr.3

Kohlenstoffbindung in irischen Wäldern

Wälder sind die größten terrestrischen Kohlenstoffspeicher. Sie speichern ca. 39% des weltweiten Bodenkohlenstoffs und 77% des weltweiten Vegetationskohlenstoffs.

Autor
K. A. Byrne, K. Black
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
COFORD PUBLICATION - Envionment nr.3
Studie
http://www.coford.ie/media/coford/content/publications/projectreports/cofordconnects/CarbonSequestration.pdf

Forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle and the maintenance of forests is a vital component of any efforts to mitigate climate change. At national level, forests have the potential to play a significant role not only through the maintenance of existing forests and the creation of new ones, but also in the utilisation of wood products for energy and in the displacement of energy intensive products.

Although recent years have seen considerable advances in our understanding of the C balance in Irish forests many information gaps remain before a robust C accounting system can be created for Irish forests. Principal among these is a plot-based forest inventory repeated every five to ten years. Current research efforts will provide valuable information and understanding which, combined with forest inventory data, will lay the foundations of a C accounting system which will meet the standards of best international practice.

Autor Pilegaard et al. (2008)   Zeitschrift IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6

Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf die Kohlenstoffbindung in einem dänischen Buchenwald

In dieser Studie wird der CO-Austausch in einem Buchenwald über 12 Jahre gemessen.

Autor
K. Pilegaard, E. Dellwik, A. Ibrom
Veröffentlicht
2008
Zeitschrift
IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6
Studie
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1307/6/8/082016/meta

The CO2 exchange over a beech forest near Sorø, Denmark, was measured continuously during 12 years (1996-2008). Simultaneously climate variables were measured which makes it possible to relate the CO2 exchange to recent climate changes. The CO2 exchange was measured by the eddy covariance method which gives a direct measure of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at a half hourly basis. Ecosystem respiration (RE) was estimated from nighttime values and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) was calculated as the sum of RE and NEE.

Over the 12 years the beech forest acted as a sink of an average of 115 g C/m2/y. Only during one of the years the forest acted as a small source. During the 12 years there was ageneral increase in annual NEE. RE increased during the time span, but GEE increased even more resulting in the forest acting as an increasing sink. The increase in RE can be explained by increasing temperature; the increase in GEE by a longer growing season; in this case especially a longer lifetime of the beech leaves thus increasing the annual assimilation capacity of the forest. The increase in the CO2during the time-span may be an additional factor for the increase in GEE.

Autor Agentia Nationala (2011)   Zeitschrift RAPORT ANUAL PRIVIND STAREA MEDIULUI ÎN JUDEŢUL GALAŢI

Jahresbericht über den Umweltzustand im Bezirk Galaţi

Der Klimawandel hat signifikante Auswirkungen auf Wälder in Rumänien.

Autor
Agentia Nationala de protectie a mediului
Veröffentlicht
2011
Zeitschrift
RAPORT ANUAL PRIVIND STAREA MEDIULUI ÎN JUDEŢUL GALAŢI
Seiten
199-200
Studie
http://www.anpm.ro/documents/19877/2225883/CAP+7++SCHMIBARI+CLIMATICE+2012.pdf/ba707b4b-5511-4f75-b19d-af1ca455d1fe

In order to lower emission levels, humans need to make permanent changes to their lifestyles and methods of doing business.  In the short term, however, many scientists have researched the carbon cycle to devise possible plans to capture CO2 from the atmosphere. A technique being explored and tested is by means of forest sequestration.  It is a stable fact that forests around the world store large amounts of carbon within their tree trunks, roots, leaves, stems and other biomass associated with them, such as surrounding soils.

Stadtwälder & mehr

Autor D. J. Nowak, D. E. Crane (2001)   Zeitschrift Environmental Pollution 116

Kohlenstoffspeicherung durch städtische Bäume in den USA

In dieser Studie wurden 10 Städte in den USA untersucht, um Daten zur Kohlenstoffspeicherung urbaner Wälder und ihren potentiellen Beitrag zur Reduzierung von CO2 zu erfassen.

Autor
D. J. Nowak, D. E. Crane
Veröffentlicht
2001
Zeitschrift
Environmental Pollution 116
Seiten
381-389
Studie
https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/2002/ne_2002_nowak_002.pdf

Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 million/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges from 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in Jersey City, NJ.

Regions with the greatest proportion of urban land are the Northeast (8.5%) and the southeast (7.1%). Urban forests in the north central, northeast, south central and southeast regions of the USA store and sequester the most carbon, with average carbon storage per hectare greatest in southeast, north central, northeast and Pacific northwest regions, respectively. The national average urban forest carbon storage density is 25.1 tC/ha, compared with 53.5 tC/ha in forest stands.

These data can be used to help assess the actual and potential role of urban forests in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas.

Autor Escobedo et al. (2008)   Zeitschrift IFAS Extension Programme

Kohlenstoffspeicherung durch den städtischen Wald von Gainesville

Städte sollten versuchen ihren Emissionen zu reduzieren und große, gesunde Bäume zu pflanzen, um möglichst viel Kohlenstoff zu binden und urbane Wälder zu entwickeln, die auch einen sozialen Nutzen generieren.

Autor
F. Escobedo, J. A. Seitz, W. Zipperer
Veröffentlicht
2008
Zeitschrift
IFAS Extension Programme
Seiten
3pp
Studie
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR27200.pdf

Climate change is a world-wide issue, and it may seem as if only actions by national governments can work effectively against it. In fact, individuals and small communities, too, can make wise choices and impacts. Communities can mitigate climate change through reducing fossil fuel consumption and good management of its urban forest. Urban trees can reduce concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide by storing carbon in their roots, stems, and branches. Urban forests can also help reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel-based power plants because their shade and wind protection reduces energy consumption for heating and cooling buildings.

By estimating the amount of carbon removed by trees, the role of urban forests in mitigating climate change can be determined and an economic value to the amount of carbon sequestered by an urban forest can be assigned.

Autor Fehse et al. (2002)   Zeitschrift Forest Ecology and Management 163

Tropische Sekundärwälder in großer Höhe: eine wettbewerbsfähige Kohlenstoffsenke?

In dieser Studie wird die Kohlenstoffspeicherung in höheren Lagen untersucht, da viele dieser Flächen abgeholzt wurden und dementsprechend eine Möglichkeit zum Kohlenstoffausgleich bieten.

Autor
J. Fehse, R. Hofstede, N. Aguirre, C. Paladines, A. Kooijman, J. Sevink
Veröffentlicht
2002
Zeitschrift
Forest Ecology and Management 163
Seiten
9-25
Studie
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248427587_High_altitude_tropical_secondary_forests_A_competitive_carbon_sink

High altitude tropical regions have been heavily deforested and offer large areas for carbon offsets by secondary forest regeneration. However, a general assumption exists that productivity, and thus, carbon sequestration of high altitude forests is low, but the scarcity of data from high altitude tropical forests does not allow for a sound confirmation of this assumption. To determine the carbon sequestration potential of natural forest regeneration and reforestation efforts at high altitudes, aboveground biomass was quantified of several successional stages of two monospecific secondary forests in the high Ecuadorian Andes.

The studied forests were, at 3200 m, an Alnus acuminata forest with 8-, 20-, 30- and 45-year-old stands and, at 3600 m, a Polylepis incana forest with 6-, 15- and 30-year-old stands and old growth forest without known age. Both trees are pioneer species. Additionally, a soil survey was conducted and leaf N/P ratios and N and P retranslocation rates were determined. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) estimates of the oldest stages of the two forests were 241 Mg ha1 for the Alnus and 366 Mg ha1 for the Polylepis forest. Productivity, expressed as annual aboveground biomass accumulation (ABA) was in both forests highest in the establishment phase (14.2 and 15.0 Mg ha1 per year at 8 and 6 years, respectively) due to high sapling numbers, and then slowed down significantly (5.9 and 6.9 Mg ha1 per year, respectively at age 30).

TAGB and ABA figures of the investigated forests are comparable to those of lowland tropical forests and do not indicate a significant decrease of these parameters at higher altitudes in the tropics. Analysis of site conditions, ecological requirements and ecophysiological properties of the tree species indicated that in both cases an optimal combination of these factors strongly favoured forest growth. The results do show, however, that high carbon offsets at high altitudes are possible.

Autor Gilroy et al. (2014)   Zeitschrift Nature Climate Change 4.6

Kohlenstoff und Biodiversität profitieren von Waldregeneration in einem Hotspot des Endemismus

Diese Studie zeigt, dass sich durch den Aufbau von Sekundärwäldern eine beachtliche Menge Kohlenstoff ansammelt und zudem noch die Biodiversität gefördert wird.

Autor
J. J. Gilroy, P. Woodcock, F. A. Edwards, C. Wheeler, B. L. G. Baptiste, C. A. M. Ulribe, T. Haugaasen, D. P. Edwards
Veröffentlicht
2014
Zeitschrift
Nature Climate Change 4.6
Seiten
1-5
Studie
file:///C:/Users/Assistenz/Downloads/Gilroyetal14CheapcarbonandbiodiversitycobenefitsforestregenerationNCC.pdf

Climate change and biodiversity loss can be addressed simultaneously by well-planned conservation policies, but this requires information on the alignment of co-benefits under different management actions. One option is to allow forests to naturally regenerate on marginal agricultural land: a key question is whether this approach will deliver environmental co-benefits in an economically viable manner. A survey of carbon stocks, biodiversity and economic values is reported from one of the world’s most endemic-rich and threatened ecosystems: the western Andes of Colombia.

It is shown that naturally regenerating secondary forests accumulate significant carbon stocks within 30 years, and support biodiverse communities including many species at risk of extinction. Cattle farming, the principal land use in the region, provides minimal economic returns to local communities, making forest regeneration a viable option despite weak global carbon markets. Efforts to promote natural forest regeneration in the tropical Andes could therefore provide globally significant carbon and biodiversity co-benefits at minimal cost.

Autor V. Bellassen, S. Luyssaert (2013)   Zeitschrift Nature – International weekly journal of science 506

Kohlenstoffaufnahme: Management von Wäldern in unsicheren Zeiten

Die Erweiterung der Waldbestände und der Holzernte wird uns Zeit erschaffen, während wir mehr darüber lernen, wie Bäume Kohlenstoff absorbieren.

Autor
V. Bellassen, S. Luyssaert
Veröffentlicht
2013
Zeitschrift
Nature – International weekly journal of science 506
Seiten
153-155
Studie
https://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/1.14687!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/506153a.pdf

Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and wood can be a substitute for fossil fuels and carbon-intensive materials such as concrete and steel. The best way to manage forests to store carbon and to mitigate climate change is hotly debated. Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and wood can be a substitute for fossil fuels and carbon-intensive materials such as concrete and steel. In the past few decades, the world's forests have absorbed as much as 30% (2 petagrams of carbon per year; Pg C year−1) of annual global anthropogenic CO2 emissions1 — about the same amount as the oceans. Two-thirds of forests are managed.

Much has been learned about the carbon cycle in forests, but there are still too many gaps in our knowledge. New observations have called long-accepted theories into question: the finding that unharvested forests, for example, are absorbing more carbon than they release, accounting for half the sink, is contrary to the tenet of ecology, known as Odum's framework, that carbon flows in natural forests should be in equilibrium. This carbon-sink behaviour of mature forests is attributed to large-scale environmental changes that violate the assumption of the steady conditions underlying Odum's framework: higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations are accelerating tree growth worldwide and nitrogen emitted by industry, agriculture and fossil-fuel burning is increasingly fertilizing managed forest soils in Europe, China and the eastern United States.

To make good decisions about how to cultivate forests for climate-change mitigation, such as whether it is better to harvest or conserve trees, we must better understand the cause and future behaviour of this in situ carbon sink. Until more is known, we propose that forestry management should prioritize 'win–win' strategies — those that increase both forest stocks and timber harvest, through measures such as protecting trees from animals, or replacing dying or low-productivity forests.

Autor Wissenschaftlicher Beirat (1998)   Zeitschrift Sondergutachten

Die Anrechnung biologischer Quellen und Senken im Kyoto-Protokoll: Fortschritt oder Rückschritt für den globalen Umweltschutz?

In dieser Studie bewertet der Wissenschaftliche Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (WBGU) das Kyoto-Protokoll im Hinblick auf die Anrechnung biologischer Quellen und Senken.

Autor
Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung (WBGU)
Veröffentlicht
1998
Zeitschrift
Sondergutachten
Studie
http://static.naturefund.de/naturefund/Naturefund/Studien/wbgu_sn1998.pdf

In dieser Studie bewertet der Wissenschaftliche Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (WBGU) das Kyoto-Protokoll im Hinblick auf die Anrechnung biologischer Quellen und Senken. Die Idee einer Verbindung von Klima- und Senkenschutz wird vom Beirat grundsätzlich befürwortet.

Die Art der Anrechnung von Tätigkeiten im Bereich „Landnutzungsänderungen und Forstwirtschaft“, wie sie im Kyoto-Protokoll geregelt wird, bewertet der Beirat zum damaligen Zeitpunkt (1998) allerdings als unzureichend und verbesserungsbedürftig, um den Zielen „Klimaschutz“ und „Schutz der biologischen Vielfalt“ gemeinsam zu dienen.

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